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Henry Watterson, 1840-1921. "Marse Henry": an Autobiography (2 volumes)
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Underground; or, Life below the surface.
Incidents and accidents beyond the light of day; startling adventures in all parts of the world; mines and the mode of working them; under-currents of society; gambling and its horrors.
Underground; or, Life below the surface.
Incidents and accidents beyond the light of day; startling adventures in all parts of the world; mines and the mode of working them; under-currents of society; gambling and its horrors.
INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS BEYOND THE LIGHT OF DAY; STARTLING ADVENTURES IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD; MINES AND THE MODE OF WORKING THEM; UNDER-CURRENTS OF SOCIETY; GAMBLING AND ITS HORRORS; CAVERNS AND THEIR MYSTERIES; THE DARK WAYS OF WICKEDNESS; PRISONS AND THEIR SECRETS; DOWN IN THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA; STRANGE STORIES OF THE DETECTION OF CRIME.
AUTHOR OF "CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD;" "OVERLAND THROUGH ASIA,m"THE BOY-EXILES," ETC.
Entered, according to Act of Congress.
IN presenting this volume to the public the author would say that it has been his endeavor to make a book in which he could describe the life, not only of the miner, but of all who work under ground � whether literally or metaphorically.
By interspersing the story with numerous anecdotes and incidents he has hoped to render its perusal less fatiguing than it might be had he restricted his labors to collecting a mass Of dry details, and making a liberal use of technical terms.
A apologise, gambling make money fast ideas think at the table of contents will show how far he has travelled out of the beaten track in his effort to throw light upon dark subjects, and draw attention to a topic that might be wearisome if treated in its most restricted form.
He has not confined himself to any one part of the globe, and the most of the incidents which he-narrates are now for the first time given to the public.
The author has not hastily performed his work.
Neither has he relied solely upon his own efforts and information, as he well knows that no one person, however industrious, can gather all that may be known upon any important subject.
Remembering the adage that two heads are better than one, and supplementing it with the assertion that ten heads are better than two, he has employed all means in his power, and secured the assistance of others, in order to make this book as comprehensive as possible.
He has consulted many books on mining matters and kindred subjects, and devoted much time to a careful investigation of the works of various scientific and popular writers.
He has been 5 6 PREFACE.
Numerous books of travel have been examined, files of newspapers have been searched, and many individuals, familiar with subjects which it was proposed to treat, have been consulted in the author's wanderings after light.
He trusts that his labors will not prove to have been in vain.
Several literary gentlemen have aided the author in his enterprise.
He is permitted to mention, as among these, Mr.
Junius Henri Browne, of New York, and the late Colonel Albert S.
Evans, -of San Francisco.
In preparing the matter for the press, it has been found convenient to make use of words borrowed from the French and other languages, and also of terms more or less technical in their character.
They are not numerous, and are so well understood either by context or by popular use that a glossary is not considered necessary.
The author takes this opportunity to thank the newspaper press and the public for the generous reception accorded to his previous publications, and, in the language of the business card of the period, he hopes to merit a continuance of the same.
ASTOR HousE, NEW YORK, May, 1873.
SAVAGE THEORIES ABOUT COAL.
ANCIENT AND MODERN FIRE Please click for source />THE CAVERNS OF NAPLES.
DROWNED IN BOILING WATER.
OPERATIONS AT HELLGATE, EELLGATE AND SANDY HOOK.
HOW COAL MINES ARE DISCOVERED.
ADVENTURE OF THE AUTHOR DESCENDING A SHAFT.
A MINUTE OF PERIL.
A MINER'S VIEWS OF DANGER.
SPECULATIONS IN NEVADA MINES.
ONE HUNDRED PER CENT.
REMARKABLE BURGLARIES, - UNDER GROUND FOR DISHONEST PURPOSES.
WONDERFUL ADROITNESS OF BURGLARS.
OCCUPATION OF A LAWYER'S OFFICE.
THICKNESS OF COAL SEAMS.
EXPLOSIONS IN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN MINES.
A DAY IN POMPEII.
A VISIT TO POMPEII - NEAPOLITAN HACKMEN, - AN INTERESTING ADVENTURE.
VESUVIUS AND ITS ERUPTIONS.
THE GREAT ERUPTION OF VESUVIUS.
W- HAT IT DID.
PERILS OF THE MINER.
NARROW ESCAPE OF THE AUTHOR.
INUNDATION OF A MINE ON THE LOIRE.
THE WIELICZKA SALT MINES.
THE GREAT WIELICZKA SALT MINES, THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD.
CORAL CAVES IN THE PACIFIC.
ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN.
UNDERGROUND IN SAN FRANCISCO.
GRAVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION.
EXPERIENCES IN WILD LIFE.
NECESSITIES OF TRAVELLERS IN WILD COUNTRIES.
DEFENCES AGAINST WILD ANIMALS.
CACHE OF A WHISKEY KEG, AND HOW IT WAS MADE.
THE GREEN VAULTS OF DRESDEN.
THE RICHEST TREASURY IN THE WORLD.
WONDERFUL CARVINGS, MOSAICS, AND CURIOSITIES.
WHAT AN ENTERPRISING SCOUNDREL MIGHT ACCOMPLISH.
THE CATACOMBS OF PARIS.
THE FAIR CAPITAL UNDERMINED.
SIX MILLIONS OF SKELETONS.
A JOURNEY THROUGH THE CITY OF THE DEAD.
WINE AND BEER CELLARS.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 346 14: CONTENTS.
ITS HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION.
DESTRUCTION OF THE BASTILE.
DIAMONDS AND DIAMOND MINES.
HOW DIAMONDS ARE OBTAINED.
THE UNDER-WORLD OF PARIS.
THE IMMORALITY AND LICENTIOUSNESS OF THE CAPITAL.
THE EAST RIVER BRIDGE.
LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS UNDER WATER.
THE DAYS OF SLAVERY.
WAR AND PRISON ADVENTURES.
EXPERIENCES OF AN ARMY CORRESPONDENT.
TWO YEARS AS A CAPTIVE.
ROMANCE AND MYSTERY OF CAVES.
INSURANCE AND ITS MYSTERIES.
HISTORY OF FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE.
PURSUIT BY DETECTIVES AND CAPTURE OF THE SWINDLER.
TUNNELS AMONG THE ANCIENTS.
LAUGHABLE INCIDENTS IN RAILWAY TUNNELS.
THE MONT CENIS TUNNEL.
MOUNTAIN CHAINS BETWEEN NATIONS.
LAYING OUT THE WORK.
THE SEWERS OF PARIS.
THEIR FIRST GREAT INSPECTION.
DENIS, AND THE MARKETS.
HIS SUFFERINGS AND ESCAPE.
PROPERTIES AND PECULIARITIES OF MERCURY, OR QUICKSILVER.
PRACTICAL VALUE OF AN EARTHQUAKE.
GUANO AND THE COOLIE TRADE.
GUANO AND ITS CHARACTER.
THE GREAT CALAMITY IN PENNSYLVANIA.
DISCOVERY OF THE BODIES.
IRON AND IRON MINES.
IRON AND ITS VALUE.
TOILING IN A SIBERIAN MINE.
A NARROW ESCAPE FROM DEATH.
~ 599 18 CONTENTS.
LEAD MINES OF IOWA.
BLUFFS AT DUBUQUE, IOWA.
TORTURES OF THE INQUISITION.
UNDERGROUND IN THE METROPOLIS.
THE EARLY HISTORY OF MANKIND.
RAPID TRANSIT IN NEW YORK.
RELATIONS OF THE STEAM ENGINE TO HONESTY.
SILVER MINES AND MINING.
THE GAMBLING HELLS OF GERMANY.
THE FOUR GREAT SPAS.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF GAMBLING.
~, 705 2 20 CONTENTS.
GAMING AND GAMESTERS ABROAD.
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC SUMMER RESORTS.
BRIGANDAGE AS A FINE- ART.
HIGHWAY ROBBERY IN MODERN TIMES.
DOGS IN MINES, AND THE EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND CONFINEMENT.
MYSTERIES OF THE GRAND JURY.
SITTING ON A GRAND JURY.
GOLD AND ITS USES.
THE AUTHOR AS A GOLD MINER.
VICISSITUDES OF GOLD MINING.
VARIOUS WAYS OF MINING GOLD.
HIS MANAGEMENT OF A MILL.
COPPER AND COPPER MINES.
THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
THEIR AGE AND EXTENT.
STRANGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO AMERICANS.
THEIR NUMBER AND EQUIPMENT.
THE PLEASURE OF THE BOTTLE.
TRICKS OF POLITICAL LIFE.
TERSE REMARKS OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN.
WONDERFUL ESCAPE FROM A FRENCH PRISON.
DECLINE OF THE SPORT.
DIAMOND AND OTHER SWINDLES.
THE GREAT DIAMOND SWINDLE OF 1872.
HOW THE FRAUD WAS EXPOSED.
FATE OF THE SWINDLER.
CURIOSITIES OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS.
NOW THE BUSINESS IS PROSECUTED IN NEW YORK.
PHASES OF UNDERGROUND LIFE, - - - FRONTISPIECE.
AUSTIN, NEVADA; A WESTERN MINING TOWN, - - 34 3.
IMPRESSIONS OF PLANTS FOUND IN COAL.
DISCOVERY OF ANTHRACITE COAL IN PENNSYLVANIA, - 40 5.
BAY OF NAPLES, - - - 50 6.
NERO'S GYMNASIUM, - - - - - - 68 8.
VIEW OF HELLGATE FROM NEGRO POINT, - - 64 9.
GENERAL VIEW OF WORKS AT HALLETT'S POINT, - - 64 10.
VIEW OF SHAFT FROM THE DAM, - - 74 11.
ENTRANCE TO A COAL MINE, - - - - - 80 13.
INTERIOR OF A COAL MINE, - - - 80 14.
SECTIONS OF AN ENGLISH COAL MINE, - - - - 100 16.
NEW YORK SPECULATORS AT THE MINES, - - - 106 17.
DEMONSTRATING THE VALUE OF A SILVER MINE, - 106 18.
THE PHILADELPHIA BANK ROBBERY, - - - 120 19.
PEARL DIVING IN THE EAST INDIES, - - - - - 130 20 EXPLOSION OF FIRE DAMP, - - - - - - 144 21.
DISCOVERY OF LOAVES OF BREAD BAKED 1800 YEARS AGO, - 160 22.
BODIES OF POMPEIANS CAST IN THE ASHES, - - - 166 23.
DESCENT OF VESUVIUS, - - - - - - - 176 24.
THE CRATER OF VESUVIUS, - - - - - - 182 25.
INUNDATION OF A MINE, - - - - - - 200 27.
DESCENDING THE SHAFT �WIELICZKA SALT MINES, - 214 28.
CHAPEL IN THE WIELICZKA SALT MINES, - - - 214 29.
GETTING OUT SALT, - - - - - - - 220 30.
ILLUMINATION OF THE INFERNAL LAKE, - - - 220 31.
BATTLE OF THE WARRIORS, - - - - - - 236 32.
DRINKING PISCO IN A SAN FRANCISCO SALOON, - - 250 33.
AUSTRALIAN NATIVES BURNING THEIR DEAD, - - - 278 34.
AN INDIAN BURIAL PLACE, - - 278 35.
THE TOMBS OF THE KINGS AT THEBES, - - - - 286 36.
HALL IN THE TOMBS OF ASSASSEEF, - - - 286 24 INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PUMPING WELL ON OIL CREEK, - - 8334 38.
THE GRAND HOTEL.
PLACE DE LA BASTILE.
DESTRUCTION OF THE BASTILE, 3- - 68 42.
THE DIAMOND FIELDS OF SOUTH AFRICA, - 8 372 43.
RIVER WASHING-CRADLING FOR DIAMONDS, - - 878 45.
CELEBRATED DIAMONDS OF THE WORLD, - - - - 884 46.
TIlE ORLOFF DIAMOND, - - - 384 47.
THE SANCY, - - 384 51.
STAR OF THE SOUTH-ROUGH, 3 - 884 52.
THE DRESDEN, - - - - 384 53.
THE REGENT DIAMOND, - o.
AUSTRALIAN BRILLIANT, - 8 384 56.
THE SHAH, - 384 61.
GRAND AVENUE OF THE New jersey gambling tax rate ELYSEES.
BALL AT MABILLE, - - - - 400 63.
SCENE AT CLOSERIE DES LILAS, - - - - 404 64.
EAST RIVER BRIDGE, - - - - 416 65.
OUR QUARTERS IN LIBBY PRISON, - - - - 446 66.
STALAGMITES IN THE CAVE.
EXECUTION OF A CHINESE CRIMINAL, - - - - 488 69.
EASTERN ENTRANCE'TO HOOSAC TUNNEL, - 500 70.
WESTERN ENTRANCE TO HOOSAC TUNNEL, - - - 500 71.
WORK AT THE HEADING. .
BORING MACHINE USED IN MOUNT CENIS TUNNEL, - - 518 73.
SIDE VIEW OF BORING MACHINE.
THE MADELEANE CHURCH, - 530 76.
SUBTERRANEAN PARIS, - - 536 77.
THE GREAT SEWER, - - - 536 78.
QUICKSILVER MINES OF NEW ALMADEN, - - 554 79.
BLASTING IN THE QUICKSILVER MINES, - 554 80.
BURNING OF A COOLIE SHIP, 568 81.
COOLIES PLANNING A MUTINY, - - - - 574 82.
MUTINY ON THE LOWER DECK, - 574 83.
THE AVONDALE DISASTER-REMOVING BODIES FROM THE MINE, 586 84.
AN AUTO-DA-FE IN SPAIN, - - 622 86.
BLAZING OVENS FILLED WITH HERETICS, - - 630 87.
A NEW YORK "DIVE," - 640 89.
A DESCENT ON THE GAMBLERS.
SECTION OF THE BROADWAY UNDERGROUND RAILWAY, - 658 91, TUNNELLING BROADWAY FOR THE UNDERGROUND RAILWAY, - 662 92.
INTERIOR OF PNEUMATIC PASSENGER CAR, - - - 666 93.
PORTAL OF THE BROADWAY TUNNEL, - 666 94.
THE BOMB FERRY-TRAVEL IN THE 30TH CENTURY, - - 672 95.
THE PUBLIC HIGHWAY-TRAVEL IN THE 30TH CENTURY, - - 672 96.
THE KEEL BOAT, 680 97.
A MISSISSIPPI RAFT, - 680 98.
PIRATES OF THE MISSISSIPPI, - - - - 686 99.
DISCOVERY OF SILVER IN PERU, - 690 100.
INTERIOR OF A SILVER MINE, - - - - - 690 101.
ENTRANCE TO A SILVER MINE OF CENTRAL AMERICA, - - 696 102.
INDIAN SILVER MINERS AT WORK, - - - - 696 103.
ONE METHOD OF WASHING FOR SILVER, - .
CONVERSATIONHAUS AT BADEN, - - - - - 708 106.
CONCERT IN THE GARDENS AT BADEN, - - - 708 107.
GAMBLING SALOON AT BADEN, - 722 108.
ESQUIMAUX DWELLINGS, - - 736 109.
ROBBERY OF THE DILIGENCE, - - - - - - 750 110.
THE KNOWING WITNESS, - - - - - - 778 111.
THE INTERESTING WITNESS, - - - - - -778 112.
THE DEAF WITNESS, - - - - - - - 778 113.
THE IRRELEVANT WITNESS, - - 778 114.
THE DISCOVERER OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA, 790 115.
SUTTER'S MILLS WHERE GOLD WAS DISCOVERED, - - 790 116.
EMIGRANT TRAIN OF GOLD HUNTERS IN 1849, - - - 794 117.
CHINESE GOLD MINING IN CALIFORNIA, - - - 794 118.
GOLD WASHING IN THE CALIFORNIA MINES, - - 798 119.
MINERS AROUND THEIR CAMP-FIRE, - 810 121.
GROUND SLUICING, - - - - - - - 814 122.
HYDRAULIC MINING, - - - - - - - 814 123.
A COPPER MINE OF THE LAKE SUPERIOR REGION, - - 818 124.
INTERIOR OF A COPPER MINE, - - - - - - 818 125.
DRILLING IN A COPPER MINE, - - - - - 824 126.
CATACOMBS OF ROME-THE THREE BROTHERS, - - - 832 127.
LOST IN THE CATACOMBS, - - - - - - 840 129.
DREAM OF A DIAMOND SWINDLER, - - - - 910 130.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE EARTH'S WEALTH.
EXPERIENCE WITH A NOVICE.
We are constantly seeking information regarding the affairs of others, and we generally manage in some way to obtain what we seek.
We store our minds with useful and-useless knowledge of the manners and customs of people in other lands, and of the private lives and histories of our near neighbors.
Very often the material we thus lay aside in our mental storehouses does not particularly concern us, but, like Mrs.
Toodles, in her purchase of a door-plate bearing the name of Thompson with a p, we think it will be-handy to have at some future day, and so we keep it.
With a fair devotion to inquiries, and a well-cultivated memory, a life of threescore and ten years ought, at this day, to cacquaint its possessor with a general knowledge of the how and why of the existence of at least half the inhabitants of the globe.
But it may be set down as an axiom, that one half the world does not live as the other half does.
People's tastes differ, and there are very few who would wish to live exactly like others, especially if those to whom the choice is offered are richer than the others.
There are many who would not change places with their wealthy neighbors, and it is more than probable that their wealthy neighbors would not change places wvith them.
The majority of sailors are not happy when on shore, but are constantly sighing for a wet sheet and a flowing sea, while the majority of landsmen have no desire for such hydropathic experience.
When Mungo Park travelled in Africa, the natives expressed great pity for him because he had lost his color; they constantly mourned over the unhappy lot of the white man, and would have been quite unwilling to change complexions with him.
A comparatively small portion of the human race lives, or would wish to live, beneath the surface of the globe.
Most of us rarely go there voluntarily, and our first visits of'any important duration are made after we have shuffled off this mortal coil and invoked the aid of the sexton.
Then we are carried there without protest, and the earth is filled above us in sufficient depth to guard us against ordinary intrusions.
We may be certain that none of our friends will come in living flesh to join us, and when death brings them to our side their slumbers will be as long and peaceful as our own.
The earth, beneath its surface, is regarded by many, as the dwelling-place of Death, to be contemplated with a shudder, and to be visited only when life has left us.
But have they ever considered how much of life there is which the light of day does https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-dealer.html reveal?
The plants in our WEALTH UNDERGROUND.
The trees of the forest spread their branches and unfold.
Through these lower limbs,hidden fiom the light of the sun and sheltered from the peltings of the pitiless storm, life comes to the trunk and to the upper branches.
Lay bare these lower branches, and tear them from the earth, and the tree soon withers and perishes.
The grass carpets the meadow, the flowers adorn the hill-sides, wheat and corn grow in the fields, the trees spread their shading limbs and drop their fruits in their season, and without these the world would be desolate.
But all have their existence underground, and they cling as tenaciously to the bosom of Mother Earth as the men who walk among or upon them cling to that mysterious element which we call life.
A great portion of the wealth of the globe lies beneath its surface.
Gold and silver form the circulating medium of all civilized and many savage people.
Their possession is wealth, as the lack of them is poverty; their coming brings happiness, and their departure leaves misery.
From the earth they are taken, and in their pursuit men undergo many privations and suffer many hardships.
The diamond that sparkles on delicate fingers has been washed from the accumulations which many centuries had piled above it.
Iron, copper, tin, and other metals are sought by the light of the miner's lamp, far away from the rays of the sun, and sometimes in long tunnels pushed beneath the ever-restless ocean.
Ages and ages ago the hand'of Nature deposited beds of coal in every quarter of the globe, and to-day they afford light and heat to millions of the human race.
Down, down, hundreds and thousands of feet below the surface of the earth these coal-beds are spread, sometimes over areas many miles in extent, and promising a supply of fuel for many centuries to come.
Thousands of men find profitable employment in these mines; and but for their labors, those of us who live above the surface would often suffer the pangs of cold.
As the coal burns brightly in our grates and fills our rooms with heat, do we think of the many centuries it has been awaiting our use, and of the toil that has placed it in our control?
As we look at the great network of railways, spreading over our continent, bringing north and south, east and west, nearer together, annihilating time and space and sometimes annihilating peopledo we think that but for the mines of coal and iron our country to-day would be little better than it was half a century ago, and much of its area, red ghost tuileries gambling den rich in commercial and agricultural prosperity, would be little else than a wilderness?
To coal and iron the world owes much of its present advancement, and both these substances come from beneath the surface of the earth.
The most valuable minerals, and those which employ the greatest amount of capital, are of comparatively recent exploitation.
Iron has done more good to the world than gold, and is many times more valuable; but gold was known and used long before iron was discovered.
Coal is more valuable than copper, and gold, and diamonds; the world could go on without these last, as other minerals could take their places, but nothing now known could take the place of coal.
From many parts of the globe the forest primeval has been removed, and countries that a few-vhundred years ago were thickly wooded are now almost denuded of timber.
Should the working of coal mines cease to-day, there would speedily ensue a scarcity of fuel, and, if prolonged, this scarcity would result in much suffering and death.
The exploitation of coal is one of the great interests of the British Isles, and is of no inconsiderable importance in the United States.
More than two thirds of the mining enterprise of the world is devoted to it; yet this substance, possessing no beauty, and to a casual observer devoid of all merit, is included among the most recently discovered minerals.
Comparatively few of those Who walk the earth to-day have ever been farther within it than to the bottom of a cellar; and in many localities even this experience has been denied to FUNNY EXPERIENCE OF A NOVICE.
If an enumeration were made to-day of all persons in the United States who have ever been underground more than fifty feet from the surface, and more than one hour at a time, the number would be found surprisingly small.
I once accompanied a gentleman from Boston in a descent into a mine a hundred feet in depth, and having a single gallery about eighty feet long, leading from the foot of the shaft.
It was an old story to me, but a new one to my Boston friend, who clung to the rope of our bucket as convulsively as a drowning man would clutch a life buoy.
When we reached the bottom, and crept along the low gallery, his heart beat violently, and he several times wished himself safe above ground.
When we finished our exploration, and returned to the upper air, I asked him what he thought of the mine.
When he regained his voice, he said, � "You might tell me of such a mine, and I should be obliged to believe you, though I can hardly conceive one could be made so large.
But as for taking me into such a place, you could never do it without tying me and carrying me there.
Catch me in such a place as that, never.
When the boy returned, he was thoughtful for a long time, and finally remarked that he never supposed the world was so large.
The miner's life is one of vicissitudes and dangers.
He is shut out from the light of day, and depends upon his lamp or 32 - DANGERS UNDERGROUND.
Shut up in the earth, all is opinion gambling subreddit agree to him; and whether the sun shines or is obscured by clouds, whether the moon is in the heavens, surrounded by twinkling stars, or the whole dome above is wrapped in darkness, makes little difference to him.
All is night, this web page without his artificial light, all is blackest darkness.
The changes that fbllow the earth's daily revolutions are unknown to the miner as he performs his work, and if he remained continually below, the seasons might come and go without his knowledge.
Summer's heat and winter's frost do not reach him; there is for him but one season - the season that has endured for millions of years, and may endure for millions of years to come.
The temperature of the surrounding earth, unless varied by that of the air driven to him by the machinery of his mine, or by the heat of red ghost tuileries gambling den lamp, is the temperature in which he performs his- labors.
Day and ni:ght, spring and autumn, new moon and full moon, may come and go, but they extend not their influence to the depths of the mine.
There are dangers from falls of rock and earth, which may cause immediate death, or enclose their victims in a living tomb.
There are dangers from water, which may enter suddenly, flood the mine, and drown all who cannot reach the opening in time to escape.
There are dangers from the atmosphere, which may become foul, and leave him who breathes it lying dead, far away from those who would gladly assist him, but would lose their lives should they go to his rescue.
His light grows dim, and warns him of his peril; as he starts for a place of safety the; light goes out, and in blackest hope, louisiana gambling vacations confirm he falls and dies, unless speedily rescued.
There are dangers from fire, where the atmosphere becomes charged with inflammable gas; it is lighted by an accident, and an explosion follows, in which dozens and sometimes hundreds of men are killed.
There are dangers from fire outside the mine, as in the horrible affair of Avondale.
There are dangers from the breaking of ropes, and the derangement of machinery, from the carelessness of those whose duty it is to exercise the utmost caution, and from other causes to be hereafter enumerated.
Laborers can always be found fbr-any honest employment, and too often for employment quite outside the bounds of honesty.
The earliest life underground was in caves of natural formation.
All over the globe there are caverns where men have lived, sometimes under concealment, sometimes for sanitary reasons, and sometimes because they saved the labor of constructing houses.
Some of these caverns are of great dimensions, and could furnish shelter for thousands of men, while others are adapted to the wants of only a few persons.
Many caverns and caves are not available as dwelling-places, but are visited only from motives of curiosity on the part of travellers, or from a desire for gain on the part of those who seek whatever may be valuable.
Many caves have histories romantic or tragic, and some of them combine romance and tragedy in about equal proportions.
Tales of love and war, of fidelity and treachery, and of all the contending passions and experiences of human nature, can be found in the-histories of these excavations which have been made by no mortal hands.
Metaphorically, there is a great deal of underground life above the surface of the earth.
AMen devote time, and patience, and study to the acquisition of wealth by measures that are as far removed from the light of honesty as the tunnel the miner drives beneath the mountain is removed from the light of the sun.
One builds a reputation which another burrows beneath and destroys, as the engineers at Hell Gate undertook to destroy the rocky reef which sunk the ships of many a navigator, from the days of Hendrick Hudson to the present.
Dishonest men hope for wealth, they care not how obtained, and in its pursuit they frequently imitate the labors of the miner.
Shafts are sunk and tunnels are driven; the pick, the drill, and the powder-blast perform their work; operations are 34 MININIG IN METAPHOR.
A great city, in its moral or immoral life, is cut and seamed with subterranean excavations more extensive than opinion quebec gambling statistics consider of the richest coal-fields of England or Belgium.
Wall Street is a mining centre greater than the whole of Pennsylvania, and to one who knows it intimately it reveals daily more shafts and tunnels than can be found in Nevada or Colorado.
The career of a politician is not unlike that of the miner, though it is frequently much more difficult to follow.
The miner may be tracked and found, but visit web page is many a politician whose devious windings would baffle the keenest detective that ever lived.
To describe underground life in its many phases is the.
The experience of the miner is full of adventures of an exciting character; so exciting, indeed, that there is no occasion to use fiction in place of fact.
The hardships, the difficulties,'and the dangers that surround him who labors beneath the earth's surface might fbrm the basis of a story more interesting than the most skilfully constructed romance ever printed.
It is an old adage, that Truth is stranger than Fiction: the experience of the miner affords better illustrations of the correctness of this adage than does that of any other laborer.
Especially is this the case if weconsider Underground Life in its metaphoric as well as in its literal sense, and note the devious and hidden ways in which many of our fellow-men pass the greater part of their existence.
SAVAGE THEORIES ABOUT COAL.
IN the autumn of 1865, a small party connected with the survey of a telegraph route through North-eastern Asia, was landed at the mouth of the Anadyr River, near Behring's; Straits.
Another party was landed in Kamchatka, and proceeded over land towards the north.
The savages described them as the most wonderful white mea they had ever seen.
To their untutored minds the work of thewhite men was something wonderful.
It is probable that the comparatively recent discovery of mineral coal is due in a great measure to its close resemblance to stone.
A savage or civilized man knows that an, ordinary stone, whether white, red, blue, green, or gray, willi not burn; then why should he suppose that a black stone 3 37.
Until a comparatively recent date there has been no great demand for coal as fuel.
Many parts of the world at the present day are covered with immense forests, and for a agree, responsible gambling contact are and perhaps thousands of years there will be no occasion in these localities to make use of the mineral fuel.
It is supposed that the Greeks and Romans had some knowledge of fossil fuel, bu.
There were no manufactories and smelting establishments, and the working of metals was carried on in a very primitive way.
Wood and charcoal were the only fuel, and most of the countries inhabited at that early day were favored with a warm climate, that for the most part of the year was comfortable enough by day, while blankets and other bed-clothing gave sufficient warmth by night.
The laws of heat were not known; the pressure of vapor was not even thought of; or suspected; and mechanical force was derived from wind, from water, and from animated beings.
When the winds did not blow the galleys were rowed by convicts, and in the absence of a stream of water, animals, and sometimes men, turned tile mill.
Occasionally in building aqueducts, large beds of coal were laid bare, but no attention was paid to them.
In making one aqueduct, a branch of a canal was cut through a bed of rock, and at the bottom of that bed a valuable seam of coal was found, but nobody appears to have troubled his head about it.
It is supposed by most writers that the discovery of coal occurred in the East.
The Chinese have been credited with the discovery and invention of nearly everything in the world except the discovery of America and the invention of the electric telegraph.
It is pretty certain that they were acquainted with mineral fuel from a very remote antiquity.
They knew how to work it, and apply it to industrial uses, such as bakinig porcelain, drying tea, and the like.
The Chinese, for hundreds of years, click to bake porcelain with CHINESE FIRE WELLS.
It is only recently that mineral coal has been substituted for charcoal for this very same purpose in France, and it has been found to be quite economical.
The Chinese knew how to collect the gases which came from coal, and they used them for illuminating.
The accounts of the early missionaries state that from time immemorial the Chinese used to bore into the earth in search of gas, and when they found it they conveyed it in pipes to the places where it was wanted.
Gas was not used.
Historians also say that for many centuries mines of coal have been worked in the Celestial Empire, but that the worling was in a very barbarous fashion.
Many of their coal mines consist of open cuttings; when they went underground they took but little care to construct drains or support the subterranean ways, and they took no precaution whatever against explosions of fire-damp, which often proved fatal.
In England there are evidences to show that coal was known to the Romans, and possibly to the Britons before the Roman invasion; but it was only worked at the outcrops of the coal seams.
https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/i-am-a-gambling-addict.html mention is made of coal until the time of Henry lI.
In 1259 a charter was granted to the Freemen of Newcastle, giving them the liberty "to dig for cole," and a few years later coal was carried to London.
In 1306 Parliament petitioned the king to prevent the importation of coal, and Edward I.
Coal was worked to some extent in the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, and by the beginning of the seventeenth century the English coal mines were in full operation.
In 1615 four thousand English ships were employed in the coal trade.
The coal mines of Belgium were opened about tho 40.
The Belgian coal miners tell a curious story of the discovery of coal, in the twelfth century, at the village of Plenevaux, near Liege.
One of the old chroniclers gives the account as follows: � " Houillos, a farrier, at Plenevaux, was so poor as not to be able to earn enough for his wants, not having sometimes bread enough to give to his wife and children.
One day, being without work, he almost made up his mind to put an end to his life, when an old man, with a white beard, entered his shop.
They entered into conversation.
Houillos told him his troubles; that, being a disciple of St.
Eloi, he worked in iron, blowing the bellows himself to save the expense of an assistant.
He could easily realize some advantages if charcoal was not so dear, as it was that which ruined him.
Houilloa went to the spot pointed out, found the earth as predicted, and having thrown it into the fire, proceeded to forge a horseshoe at one heating.
Transported with joy, he would not keep the precious discovery to himself, but communicated this web page to his neighbors, and even to his brother farriers.
A grateful posterity has bestowed his name to coal, which is called, in French, Houille.
The miners say it was an angel who showed him the spot where the coal wvas.
Some historians say that it was before -the Revolutionary war, while others say it was since that time.
There is an old story told somewhere of a discovery of coal in IMPRESSIONS OF PLANTS FOUND IN COAL.
DISCOVERY OF ANTHRACITE COAL IN PENNSYLVANIA.
THE QUAKER AND THE YANKEE.
According to the story-teller, -but I cannot vouch fobr his correctness, -the Quaker settler, who was familiar with coal in England, discovered a click the following article stone, which seemed to him almost identical with the substance which he had used in England for fuel.
He found that it became red, and was consumed, but that it would only ignite when there was a very hot fire of wood around it.
The coal with which he had been familiar would burn quite readily, and gave off a thick black smoke; but the substance which he had discovered gave neither smoke nor flame.
He wondered at this, and concluded that the substance which he found was worthless.
One day a traveller, whom the story-teller converts into a Yankee pedler, came along.
As they sat by the evening fire, the Quaker told him of the peculiar region they were in, and of the remarkable stones which he had discovered.
He threw a few fragments upon the fire, and in a little while they became red and were consumed.
The traveller insisted that the substance was valuable; -that it was probably good coal, but the great difficulty was to make it burn.
After gossiping a while about the matter, the traveller went to bed.
During the night he pondered over the matter, and in the morning asked his Quaker friend to take him to the spot where he had found the black stone.
The spot was shown him; he examined the substance carefully.
The Quaker carried to the house a considerable quantity of the substance, and then the Yankee said, � " I think we can make this stuff burn if we can only draw a fire through it.
Now, what we want to do is to fix up something so as to make the fire go where we want it to.
The Yankee said, "Yes.
I know how it can be done; but before I tell you I want to buy half of the land where you found that stone.
A bargain was struck very speedily, and the Yankee hunted around the establishment, and found a piece of sheet iron, which he fashioned into a blower.
He then built up a small, narrow fireplace, and fitted his blower to the front.
The fire was drawn directly among the fragments of coal; in a little while the blower was removed, and the coal was found to be a red, burning mass, which threw off an intense heat.
Both were delighted with the discovery; and thus was opened the first anthracite coal mine in America.
A story was once told to me, on the Pacific coast, concerning the discovery of coal at Bellingham Bay, in British Columbia.
The narrator said that a party of men connected with the Hudson Bay Company's service, was at one time in the camp of a family of Chinook Indians.
The Indians told,them that a few days before, in a locality which they had visited, they had attempted to build a fire.
The wind was blowing, and in order to shield their fire they piled some stones around it.
Among these were two or three large black stones, which they had picked up on the surface.
Great was their astonishment, when the fire was under way, to see these black stones ignite and burn.
They thought it something mysterious, and immediately ascribed gambling manchester to the work of the devil, source as a great many savage and civilized people are inclined to attribute anything they do not understand to His Satanic Majesty.
Next day they guided the white men to the spot.
It was found that a vein of coal outcropped upon the surface, and gave sure indications of a rich deposit below.
The annual production of coal throughout the entire world ANNUAL COAL PRODUCT.
More than half of this coal is produced in Great Britain.
About twenty millions of tons are mined in North America, is sports gambling legal in louisiana the rest mainly in Belgium, France, and Prussia.
visit web page production of other countries is comparatively insignificant.
Coal is the most valuable mineral substance known.
The amount of coal taken from the earth every year is double the value of all the gold, silver, and diamonds annually produced.
In the great World's Fair of London in 1851, when the famous Kohinoor diamond attracted thousands of curious spectators, there was one day a lump of coal placed near the case containing the Kohinoor.
check this out lump bore this brief label: " This is the real Kohinoor diamond.
At the present time there is much anxiety in England about the exhaustion in a few hundred years of the coal fields in the British Isles.
The United Kingdom contains nine thousand square miles of coal' fields; France, Belgium, Spain, Prussia, and other German states, check this out, about two thousand seven hundred square miles of coal fields; other countries, not including America, contain about twenty-nine thousand, while North America, including the British colonies, contains about one hundred and eighty thousand square miles of coal fields.
It will thus be seen that the area of the North American coal fields is four times as great as all those of the other countries of the globe.
Of this immense extent of coal deposits, a very small portion has yet been touched, and consequently for thousands of years to come our country can supply the world.
Coal was formed at a very remote geological period.
Scientific men differ as to the exact age of this substance, Their differences are trivial, however, being only a few millions of years; but they all agree that at the time coal was formed there were wide jungles and swamps that covered a large portion of the earth's surface.
The atmosphere was very moist, and probably contained a much larger proportion of 464 HOW COAL WAS FORMED.
This gas is one which especially promotes the growth of plants.
It is, and was, probably unfavorable to the existence of animal life; and it has been suggested that the gradual withdrawal of the carbonic acid by the growth of vegetation of that period slowly purified the atmosphere, and brought it to the condition in which we now find it.
The earth at that time was not fitted fobr the habitation of man.
If man had existed at that period, he would have needed fins in the place of hands and feet, and would have required lungs like those of fishes, instead of those which he now possesses.
There was an abundant population of reptiles and of insects, and there was a liberal supply of fishes.
Many of these fishes, reptiles, and insects are unknown at the present day.
They performed their work, if work they had to do, and disappeared.
Their remains are found in the coal seams and in the rocks which lie above or beneath the coal, and form an interesting subject of study.
Some of the reptiles were enormously large.
Remains have been found of a lizard more than one hundred feet long, with,an open countenance, that could have taken in an ordinary man about as easily as a chicken swallows a fly.
The skeletons of these reptiles are found, and I think that most people who examine these skeletons are inclined to give a sigh of relief when they remember that such creatures are nov extinct.
They would be very disagreeable travelling companions, and one might be very much disinclined to meet them in a narrow lane on a dark night.
Some years ago I examined the skeleton of a reptile discovered in the Mississippi Valley, and though the bones were cold and motionless, I had the wish to keep at a respectful distance from them.
He had a mouth that reminded one of the extension top of a patent carriage; and when his jaw was pushed back, it seemed to me that he could have walked down his own throat without the slightest difficulty.
The most plausible and reasonable theory of the formation of coal seems to be that it is for the most part the remains of vegetable matter which had become decomposed and changed CONVERSION OF PEAT TO COAL.
The fibrous tissues of the aquatic vegetation flourished like a thick carpet on the moist surface.
It became mingled and matted together, as we now find turf and peat in peat bogs, and in swamps and marshes.
On the borders of great lakes, which in time were see more up and became swamps, these plains extended, and underwent slow depression.
Layers of sand and other substances were carried down below the level of the sea, which we now find among and alternating with the coal seams in the shape of beds of shales and sandstones.
Then another system of lagoons formed abave them, aind allowed new jungles to spring up and new marshes to be formed.
These were in turn depressed and covered by the waters.
In this way, step by step, the coal beds were built up.
According to geologists, each coal seam represents a depressed swamp, while the intervening strata of sandstone, and shale, and clay, mark the various sediments which were brought together by why gambling a sin islam action of the waters.
The coal beds contain many impressions of plants and portions of plants, so that geologists have been able to determine the nature of the vegetation of that period.
There are a great many mosses and ferns, some of the latter having thick, broad stems, and long and heavy leaves.
One geologist says there alre one hundred and seventy-seven specimens of plants found in single coal beds.
He says there are no palms, nor grasses, nor flowering plants; and for this reason he considers that the coal beds were formed from plants of a marshy growth.
The layers of peat, after being covered by shales, sandstone, and limestone, were compressed beneath the enormous weight of the over-lying strata, and while undergoing this compression, there was a sort of distillation and purifying process going on.
In this way the plants and peat, originally loosely matted together, became more and more compressed, and by means of the heat and pressure were entirely decomposed.
Ultimately the substance was turned into what we now find it, and the coal was stored up for future ages.
The ancients had curious theories in regard to the forma 48 SACRED FIRE WELLS.
They regarded it as streams of bitumen, which had become petrified, or had impregnated certain very porous kinds of rock.
Another theory which they entertained was, that forests had been carbonized on the spot where they grew, or had been transformed by streams of sulphurous acid, which possesses the property of hardening and carbonizing wood.
It is easy to attribute the origin of coal to the agency of rivers of bitumen, and oil of vitriol; but it is not easy to say where those rivers came from.
The Chinese have a theory that coal is a species of plant of which the seed was deposited in the earth ages and ages ago, and that it grew and spread in different parts of the empire where it is now found, in order that the Chinese of today might have a sufficient supply of fuel.
They attribute the streams of inflammable gas, which they collect and utilize, to the breathings of an immense monster below the surface of the earth, and in some localities they call him the first cousin of the God of Flre.
The God of Fire is one of the Chinese deities.
He occupies a prominent place in the temples, and is worshipped with great solemnity.
In sloth definition animal parts of the world these streams of gas are worshipped, and in localities along the coast of the Caspian Sea, streams of burning gas are constantly rising, and their sources are known as sacred wells.
They are visited by thousands of devotees every year, and are regarded with the greatest reverence.
Wells of similar character exist in the United States, but they are mostly of artificial origin.
They are found in the vicinity of Oil Creek, and that region of Western Pennsylvania which has been baptized as Petrolia.
Thousands of American devotees can be found in the vicinity of these wells, and many of them owe their fortunes to the modern God of Fire; but it is doubtful if many gambling towns in mississippi them worship the wells with that religious devotion and reverence which are fbund among the fire worshippers of the far east.
THE CAVERNS OF NAPLES.
THE traveller who visits Naples has abundant opportunities for making underground explorations in the neighborhood of that city.
A few of the places he can examine are of natural origin �the Blue Grotto, for- example; but by far the greater part of them are artificial.
A most interesting journey can be made to Pozzuoli and its immediate neighborhood.
With a longing desire to see some of the underground curiosities that have made that part of Italy famous, I arranged a tour in that direction before I had fairly settled myself at the hotel.
We made a party of three, all Amer, icans, and all as impatient and uneasy as our race is said to be when travelling on the continent.
A skirmish with a horde of rapacious coachmen secured us a carriage, and we drove out of Naples by the rbad which skirts the bay in the direction of Rome.
Arriving in the vicinity of the famous places, we were beset by guides, who almost climbed into the carriage ih their eagerness to secure an engagement.
We picked out the cleanest of the lot, or rather the least dirty, and mounted him upon the box by the side of the driver, whlere he sat in all the dignity of an emperor.
He spoke a confused jumble of English, French, and Italian, which was no language in particular, but might be anything in general.
His first move 49 50 GOING TO PoZZUOLI.
We objected to so many, but the guide assured us they would all be needed.
I paid for the torches with a silent resolution to make the fellow eat what were left over; and, as the tallow was bad, and the rags were worse, there was good reason to believe they would not make an agreeable dinner.
Soon after making this purchase, the work of sight-seeing began.
Each place we visited had a man at the entrance, and not one of us could go inside without paying for the privilege.
There were always a half dozen visit web page fellows hanging about ready to sell cameos and other curiosities which had been dug up in the vicinity, as they solemnly avowed; in reality the cameos were of modern manufacture, and made in Rome or Naples.
The speculators would begin by asking fifty francs for a cameo which was worth about five, and which they would sell for five if they could not get any more.
If we safely ran the gantlet through these avaricious tradesmen,-we were beset by local guides who wanted to lead us, and we generally found it desirable to employ some of them en order to see what the place contained.
In one instance these guides acted as pack-horses, and I can testify that one of them, at least, had all that he wanted to carry; and this is the way it happened.
At the cave of the Cumean Sibyl, where the Emperor Nero and other famous men of the olden time were accustomed to go.
A party of Americans were just emerging as we entered, and one of them intimated that the place laid over anything he had yet seen.
NAPLE WF AGONS HUMAN PACK MULES.
Down this tunnel we walked until we came to the edge of a black, repulsive pool, over which the light shone very dimly.
There was considerable smoke hangin~g over the water, and altogether the place was about as gloomy as anything I had ever seen.
For all that could be discovered, the pool might be a thousand feet deep, and any number of miles across; to venture upon it might be like venturing upon the Atlantic Ocean, or any other great body of water.
I noticed that the guides had their trousers rolled to the knee, and were barefooted.
They fearlessly entered the water; two of them carried the torches, and three others backed themselves to the edge where there was a sort of link />But finally we concluded to try it, and so we mounted our two-legged steeds and rode off.
It happened that I was the heaviest of our party, and it also happened that the man who took me did not weigh as much as I did by at least fifty pounds.
Ele trembled beneath me like a plateful of jelly in the hands of an intoxicated waiter, and I expected every moment he would drop me into the water.
We went out from the shore into the smoky darkness, and in less than a minute we were completely at sea.
Water was beneath and around us, and there was a black sky above that we could almost touch.
No horizon was visible, and altogether we seemed to be in a world about ten feet in diameter, and without sun, moon, or stars.
Our porters splashed along in water about two feet deep, and I thought much more of the liability of my pack animal to stumble than I did of' the Cumean Sibyl and her oracles.
Nero was less in my mind than the garlic-eating Italian- beneath me, and I'was much less interested in the Roman kings than in a certain subject of Victor Emanuel.
Our trio exchanged comments on this novel mode of travelling, and for the time we had very little appreciation of the wonderful history of Rome and her dependencies.
As near as my recollection serves, we had about five minutes of this, sort of travel, when the head of our procession came to a halt before a recess in the wall, which our leader described as the Sibyl's Bath.
It seems that before delivering her oracles, she used to take a bath, on the principle, doubtless, that cleanliness is next to godliness, and the purer her skin the more likely would the gods be to aid her with their inspiration.
The artists represent her as a pretty woman, and of course she was well aware that frequent bathing had a tendency to preserve her good looks.
The couch or bench where she reclined when delivering her oracles was pointed out, and as it then appeared, it was anything but comfortable.
The presence of the water in the cave was explained to be something modern, and not at all in fashion when the Sibyl used to be at home to visitors of wealth and distinction.
She used to keep her floor dry and well swept, and probably she had a little sideboard with a cold ham or two and a b6ttle of wine.
Nero was a fiequent caller, both in fashionable and unfashionable hours, and used to send hler valuable presents.
Nero was jealous, but the old gentleman was in a position to do pretty much as he liked, and didn't mind her scolding.
One of my companions showed me a scrap of paper, which he said he found just inside- the entrance to the cave, while I was paying off the guides.
It ran as follows: May 10, 4 P.
DEAREST SIB: Expect me at eight.
The old lady is going out this evening, and won't miss me.
Have the tea ready, and send out for a bottle of Cliquot.
I will bring a mince pie and some Limburger cheese; also a new pair of ear-rings and a chignon.
I called mly friend's attention to these slight discrepancies, and he at once put the paper in his pocket, and said nothing more about it.
After looking at the couch of the Sibyl we started back to our landing-place.
Just as we neared it we met another party going in.
One of the porters of the new party was evidently weak in the knees, for lie stumbled just as he passed me, and went down like a handful of mud.
The gentleman he carried was dropped into the water, and fell flat, as though intending to take a swim.
Iie slowly rose to his feet, and after blowing the water from his mouth with a noise like the spouting of a whale, he ventured several remarks that were nowise complimentary to his porter or to the place.
He appeared somewhat excited.
His language showed him to be English, but there was nothing in it to indicate that he was a member in good and regular standing of the Church of England.
He did not finish his journey to the bath and couch of the Sibyl, but fbllowed us to the shore, where he wrung himself out, and then retired to his carriage to be hung up to dry.
With a heartlessness peculiar to many travellers, see more refused to pay the porter for his services.
It is fortunate that the latter did not understand English, as he would have been offended at the remarks which were made about him.
From the Sibyl's Cave we went to the farnous Lake of Avernus, which was described by Virgil long before anybody who reads this book was familiar with a singlre word of Latin.
Near the lake is the famous passage into the mountain about which Virgil wrote: � "Facilis descensus Averni.
Sed revocare gradum, hie opus, hic labor est.
We laid aside our coats and vests, removed our collars, heck-ties, and hats, and altogether put ourselves in a condition quite improper in polite society.
A boy stood ready to precede us in a costume consisting of a pair 56 FACILIS DESCENSUS AVERNI.
A fresh egg was now shown us, and we examined it to see that it was quite cold and raw.
The boy then took the egg and a torch, and went into a tunnel like the one at the Sibyl's Cave.
A blast of hot air met us at the entrance, as though it came from a furnace, and I thought of Nebuchadnezzar and the treat that he used to have for his visitors.
On and on we went, and also down and down.
Old Virgil iwas right when he said that the descent was easy, for we went down with the grace of so many oysters entering the mouth of a champagne bottle.
Hotter and hotter grew the air, and before we were half way down I remembered some business that I had neglected when I left America.
I wanted to go back to look after it, but my friends argued that it would keep a little longer, and I had better go on.
So we continued gambling so fun into the bowels of the mountain, over a slippery pathway and in a temperature as agreeable as that of the stoker's room on a steamship.
We reached the end at last, and the boy stooped to the edge of a pool of water and placed the egg within it.
We could see a thin vapor rising from the surface, and readily imagined that it was steam.
The boy was careful of his hands, more careful than was necessary, since he might have added to the interest of the occasion by scalding them, and then hiring another boy to take his place.
There were plenty of boys outside who could be hired cheap, and if a dozen were killed daily by scalding, or rendered helpless, it would have made no serious diminution of the Italian population.
We stood there a couple of minutes, and then the boy took the tin pail and scooped up the egg and a quart or two of water.
It was a difficult ascent to make, and we acknowledged that Virgil's head was level when he told about the labor required to retrace one's steps from Avernis.
We perspired like a man who has just learned that he is the father of triplets, and by the time we completed the journey, our clothing was pretty thoroughly saturated.
The boy was accustomed to it, as the old lady's eels were to being skinned, NERO'S PRISON.
The egg was thoroughly cooked, and the water in the pail was of a scalding temperature, altogether too hot to put one's hand into.
The egg cost us half a franc, and so did the boy: one of us ate the egg with a little salt, but we declined to eat the boy with or without salt, and he did not urge us.
The guide told us that one day an Englishman went down the " descensus Averni," and on arriving at the hot water, he stepped around so carelessly that he slipped and fell in.
His cries and shrieks rang through the tunnel; he was pulled outas quickly as possible, but he was so badly scalded that he died in a few hours.
Several accidents have happened there by persons scalding their hands and feet, but the character of the place is such, that people are likely to be careful; otherwise there would be frequent casualties to record.
We visited the ruins of temples that were erected to I don't know how many deities, and the next subterranean explo.
We left our carriage and went on foot up a narrow lane, and along a path where beggars followed and beset us at every turn; notwithstanding their importunity, they did not extract any money from us, though they appeared in all the conditions in which beggars could possibly present themselves.
Nero must have been a charming personage if one could judge of him by looking at the placewhere he used to shut up those who offended him.
It was a subterranean affair, and we were obliged to light our torches to explore it.
We were led through winding passages into cells that were anything but comfortable, the guide stopping every moment to explain to us the nature of each one of the cells, and the uses to which they were put.
They were small enough to render it utterly improbable that a man would exert his legs very actively in running, after he was once shut in, and as for light and ventilation, they were quite in keep.
I inquired about the character of the food which Nero used 4 58 CHOICE FURNITURE.
Nero had no table d'hote, but used to send the meals to the rooms of his guests.
None of them are alive now, and their early death is to be attributed in many cases to the treatment they received.
At the time they resided there, oysters had not been invented, and there is nothing on record to show that the delicious conglomerate which we call hash had made its appearance.
Some of the patrons used to express a desire to live on the European plan, and take their meals outside; but the proprietor would never permit it.
And it must be said, to his credit, that hlis establishment was to a certain extent a free lunch concern, as he never charged anything for board and lodging.
Everything was gratis, and of'course the patrons who complained must have been mean fellows, who couldn't be satisfied, no matter what you might do for them.
The furniture of the place was very simple.
It had been mostly removed when we were there, but it consisted originally of a bundle of straw on the ground and a double lock on the door.
There used to be a gymnasium, where they kept a choice lot of racks, thumb-screws, and other luxurious arrangements.
Some of them he would play a joke upon by tying them down on a rack and then winding up the machine so that a man of five feet eight would often be converted into six feet two.
When he had been played with in this way, they would turn him loose, though releasing him did no good, as he was generally dead before they let him off.
Procrustes, which was intended to equalize all men, and make them of a uniform height.
This invention, based on the principles of mechanical communism, was a bedstead of iron, and there were various individuals who enjoyed the treat of being placed upon it.
A poet has alluded to it as follows: It NERO'S GYMNAZIE'M.
If we're too short we must be stretched, Cut off if we're too long.
If he was short, both in money and in stature, they elongated him until he could touch headboard and fobotboard at the same time; and if' he was a tall fellow, they shortened him at the feet with a large pair of shears that were kept for the purpose.
When a hundred men had been measured on this bed and placed in a row, they were found to be of the same elevation.
A good many of them died soon afterwards, but people were numerous in those days, and the dead ones red ghost tuileries gambling den not missed by those who didn't know anything about them.
Down in the kitchen, Nero had a gridiron resembling a garden gate, or a section of an iron fence.
He had so many cooks that all of them could not be constantly employed, and so he busied himself to devise ways to employ them.
He fobund that the gridiron was just the thing, and when his cooks were idle he used to take one of his lodgers down stairs and promise him a good roast.
The lodger would be thinking of; a nice turkey or a leg of' mutton when Nero said " roast " to him, and as the private table was not very good, he was always ready to go below.
When they got down stairs Nero would tip the wink to the cooks, who would seize the lodger and tie him on the gridiron.
They then built a fire under him, and Nero carried on the joke by standing alongside with a big- ladle and pouring hot oil over his guest.
When he was done brown, and turned over and done on the other side, they would let him off to enjoy the fun of seeing the sell playedj on the next man.
No doubt he would have enjoyed it had he, not been dead long before they got through with him.
When we returned to Naples, we wvent by another route, than the one we had taken in the morning.
At one place our' way led through a tunnel cut into the solid earth, and said to, 62 THE TOMB OF VIRGIL.
It has worn down greatly since it was first opened; the marks of the axles of carts and wagons are visible along its sides ten or twelve feet above the present floor.
It is lighted by torches placed at regular intervals along the walls, and is an important thoroughfare for people going between Naples and certain villages and towns to the north of it.
At the end nearest to Naples we were taken to what is supposed to be the Tomb of Virgil, though its authenticity is considerably in doubt.
It- certainly is not much of a tomb, and many a man not source so talented or famous as Go here has been lodged after death in far more beauful quarters than these.
The peculiar nature of the earth composing the hills around Naples has greatly facilitated the construction of tunnels and caves.
It is almost identical with that of the bluffs of Vicksburg - easy to cut, and at the same time sufficiently firm to prevent falling in.
No roofing or arching of any kind is needed, and the tools ordinarily used in excavations are all that are required.
Consequently every man who has a hill on his farm can construct a spacious wine cellar at little expense; and if he has a friendly neighbor over the hill, they can easily cut their way through, and save the trouble of climbing when they want to visit each other.
I heard of Neapolitan thieves who sometimes find out a wellstored wine cellar in the side of a small hill, and carefully ob.
Then they erect a small house on the other side, and begin a small tunnel.
They cart the dirt away at night, and after a month or so enter the cellar and steal enough wine to pay them handsomely for their trouble.
HELLGATE AND SANDY HOOK.
FROM the Atlantic Ocean there are two entrances into the harbor of New York; one by way of' Sandy Hook, and the other through Long Island Sound and the East River.
For a steamer coming from Liverpool, the nearest entrance is through Long Island Sound.
The Sandy Hook entrance is obstructed by sand bars; the channel is tortuous, and accidents are not uncommon.
The entrance to Long Island Sound is broad and easy, but between the Sound and the East River there is a very dangerous passage, which extends, however, less than a mile.
This dangerous passage is popularly known as Hellgate; the early Dutch navigators gave the place its name.
Tradition says that a Dutch skipper, named Adrian Blok, called it the Hellegat Riviere, after a small stream in Flanders, the place of his nativity.
There is nothing sulphurous why is gambling wrong the name, Hellegat, which is said, by one writer, to mean " Beautiful Pass;" somehow, the transposition of the word into Hellgate, has given it an infernal aspect.
The early historians of Manhattan and its vicinity described the iHellegat as a very dangerous place; one of the earliest writers speaks of it as follows: " which being a narrow passage, there runneth a violent stream both upon flood 63 64 JOKES ABOUT HELLGATE.
But as the tide rises it begins to fret; at half tide it roars with might and main, like a bull bellowing for more drink; but when the tide is full it relapses into quiet, and for a time sleeps as soundly as an alderman after dinner.
In fact, it may be compared to a quarrelsome toper, who is a peaceable fellow enough when he has no liquor at all, responsible gambling ministerial advisory council when he has a skinful, but who, when half-seas over, plays the very devil.
The removal of the rocks that lie in this passage between East River and Long Island Sound has been a subject of great anxiety witli merchants of New York, and it seems a little strange that from the time of the settlement of New York until less than thirty years ago, very little had been done towards this work.
The first survey was made under the supervision of Lieutenant now Rear Admiral Charles H.
Davis, towards the close of 1847.
He made his report in February of the following year, giving a careful description of the rocks and currents of Hellgate, and suggesting a plan fbr the removal of the most serious obstructions.
Nothing was done until the following year, when a new survey Nwas made.
A map was published, and in March, 1851, steps were taken to remove certain small but dangerous rocks by the process of blasting.
The engineer in charge of this work was a Frenchman named Maillefert; he proposed to -remove the rocks by exploding charges of powder against them.
The plan dispensed altogether with the slow and difficult process of drilling; he exploded his powder directly upon the rock, on the theory that the pressure of the water above the gas formed by the burning powder, would offer sufficient resistance to throw considerable force against the rock.
His first blast was made on Pot Rock, and removed about four feet from its highest point.
The plan was successful as long as the rocks were in a state of projection; but after these projections had been removed, and the explosions were made against a solid flat surface, they failed almost completely.
After this French engineer ended his operations, new surveys were made, and it was found that the channel, though greatly improved, was far from complete or satisfactory.
Other surveys followed, and various plans were proposed; but the breaking out of the war for a time put a stop to the labors.
In 1866 Brevet Major General Newton was sent by the War Department to examine the obstructions of Hellgate, and to arrange for their removal.
In the following year he made his report, giving estimates of the time and money required to make a safe and easy passage-way for ships of all sizes: he proposed to remove, by blasting, the obstructions known as Pot Rock, Frying Pan, Way's Reef, Shell Drake, Heeltap Rock, Negro Point, Scaly Rock, IIallett's Point, and certain other rocks of smaller size.
He estimated that the channel could be made an average 68 DANGERS OF HALLETT'S POINT.
Another plan included the removal of these rocks and four others in ten years' time, at a cost of nine millions of dollars; and he presented another plan, by which some of the middle rocks should remain as they were; and the most serious obstruction, known as Hallett's Point, could be removed in three years, at a cost of three millions.
Hallett's Point is the most dangerous obstruction in Hellgate.
From shore to shore the distance is about six hundred feet; the reef extends more than three hundred feet from one shore, so that the actual width of the channel is reduced to three hundred feet.
The water boils furiously over this reef; and turns a large part of the tide upon the Gridiron Rock, frequently throwing ships upon it.
The process of drilling and blasting was considered too slow and ineffectual, and it was proposed to remove the rock by sinking a shaft upon the shore, undermininjg the entire reef; leaving pillars to support the rock until the work of undermining was all completed, when, by a single explosion, these pillars could be blown away, the whole reef would fall, and the dangerous obstructions to the commerce of New York would be removed.
One pleasant day, in 1871, I was one of a party to visit the scene of General Newton's operations.
Our party embarked learn more here a small steamer at the Barge Office,'and proceeded up the East River, stopping on the way to examine the operations in progress fbr the removal of what is known as Coenties' Reef.
This reef is about six hundred feet from Pier No.
Attempts have been made at various times to remove this reef, but none of them were successful until the plan of General Newton was tried.
The reef is about 250 feet long, and is 130 feet wide in its broad DRILLING UNDER WATER.
We found a large scow anchored above the reef, and were politely taken on board.
The scow is very broad and heavy, and is firmly anchored, so that ships or steamers that run against it can be very little damaged.
In two or three instances, vessels that have come in collision with the scow have retired considerably damaged, while the large and unwieldy craft remains unharmed.
As we went on board we were taken to the centre of the scow, where there was a circular well about thirty feet across; and in this well https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-debt-advice.html was a dome, which could be raised and lowered by means of machinery.
At the top of the dome there was a " telescope," twelve feet in diameter, that could be extended or shortened in order to accommodate itself to the condition of the tide.
The plan of working was to anchor the scow over the place where the rock was to be drilled, and then to lower the dome until it touched the rock.
As soon as one part of it struck the rock, rods were pushed out from the side of the dome to rest upon the reef, and perform the work of feet: they readily adapted themselves to the inequalities of the rock, and as soon as they were fastened in their place the dome was almost immovable.
Inside the dome there were places for lowering drills, and working them, by means of machinery.
The drilling enginewere run by steam, and the drills, nine in number, were operated simultaneously; the nine holes that they made were in a circle of about twenty feet in diameter.
The drill penetrated the rock from six inches to two feet an hour, according to its hardness.
When a round of holes was made, the scow was hauled off, the holes were filled with charges of nitro-glycerine in tin cans, and everything wals made ready for a blast.
The work of blasting has to be done very rapidly, for the reason that a diver can only go down to arrange the charges at the period of slack water.
Everything is made ready at the turn of the tide, and the very instant that the tide falls the holes are charged.
We were not in.
When the round of holes has been charged, thle diver goes down.
The pump to supply him with air is kept at work; the charges are lowered into the water one after the other, and placed in the holes where they belong.
When he has ar.
The boats then back away from the reef sufficiently far to be out of the way of the explosion.
The nine charges are fired simultaneously by means of electricity.
The double wire, insulated with gutta-percha, extends into a small cartridge of powder, which is placed in the top of each charge of nitro-glycerine.
The ends of' the wire are brought quite near each other, and between them a small slip of https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/oklahoma-gambling-age-laws.html is soldered.
The current of electricity, passing through the wires, heats this platinum to redness, and sets fire to the powder click the following article it.
The powder explodes, and its explosion sets fire to the nitro-glycerine.
As the battery which furnishes the electricity is on board the boat, the current is thrown into each pail of wires simultaneously and thus the explosions occur at exactly the same moment.
A column of water shoots up into the air, the rock is torn and broken, and there is a general disturbance of the water all round it: ships and boats are warned, by means of a red flag, to keep at a safe distance.
It generally happens that a good many fishes that have been swimming around the rock at the time of the explosion are killed, and rise to the surface; those that are not killed are very much astonished, and swim away with great rapidity.
The experience of a diver going down to arrange the charges is not highly agreeable.
If he remains longer than the period of slack water, he finds the current so strong that it almost carries him off his feet; and it frequently becomes necessary for him to be drawn to the surface and abandon his work until the next turn of the tide.
Should an explosion occur while he is below, it would be pretty certain to cause his death.
They say that accidents which have occurred from the use of nitro-glycerine have been caused by careless or ignorant handling, and that many accidents to which powder is liable will not occur with nitro-glycerine.
General Newton explained to us that a few days before our visit a slight accident occurred, which would hlave proved fatal had they been using powder.
At that time they were using fulminating caps instead of electricity; one.
Had they been using gunpowder instead, the consequences would have been fatal.
In all the blasting operations in New York harbor at the present time, and in many other places, nitro-glycerine takes the place of powder; it is much more powerful in its effect, a single charge of it breaking and shattering a rock much more than gunpowder.
It has the advantage, too, of' extending its fbrce completely to the bottom of red ghost tuileries gambling den hole, whereas gunpowder very frequently acts only part way down the hole.
My individual experience of nitro-glycerine has not been of the most pleasing character.
In 1866 I1 sailed from New York for San Francisco by way of Panama; when we reached Aspinwall we crossed the Isthmus to take the Pacific steamer at Panama.
It was nearly sunset when we climbed up the gangway, and stood upon her deck; an hour later, the tug with our baggage, and with the express freight and mails, came out.
I was standing near the gangway when the baggage and express matter came on board, and I think, though I will not be positive about it, - and some of my acquaintances say it is very unlikely, - that I assisted in taking a few of the boxes over the rail.
Everything was stowed away, and about ten o'clock at night we steamed down the Bay of Panama, and were on our way to San Francisco.
We reached the latter city in safety on a Saturday morning, and I was intro 72 A HORRIBLE ACCIDENT.
Two or three days later, I was walking'up Montgomery Street, and met a friend on his way to lunch at a well-known Club House: I would have accepted his invitation to lunch, only it happened that I had just breakfasted; and, bidding him good morning, or good afternoon, I walked slowly towards the Occidental Hotel.
I had been there but a very few minutes before I heard a loud report, which jarred the whole building, and set people flying through all the corridors to ascertain what was the matter.
I went out, and walked up the street the way I had come.
It turned out that the explosion which had jarred all that part of the city, was in the office of the Express Company.
To tell the story briefly, seventeen persons were killed, among them some of my personal friends, and as many more had been wounded.
The Club House, where I was very near taking my lunch, had been blown up, and several persons who were sitting at the lunch-table were among the injured.
Among the boxes which had been on the steamer with me from New York to San Francisco, had been passed over the rail of the steamer at Panama, and which I had assisted in handling, there were two cases of nitro-glycerine.
One of these cases had exploded at the express office, its contents not being known, and consequently it had not been carefully handled, and in exploding it had set fire to the other.
The force was sufficiently strong to cause a marvellous deal of damage, in and around the express company's building, to break hundreds, if not thousands, of panes of glass, some of them three or four hundred yards away; and all agreed that if those cases had blown up on our steamer we never would have been heard of afterwards.
Why, the steamer would have gone, one half to the AT HALLETT'S POINT.
Since that time I have had a wholesome fear of nitro.
It may be a very good thing in its way, it may be entirely safe if properly handled, but I greatly prefer that it should not be in my way, and that somebody else should handle it.
From Coenties' Reef we went to Hallett's Point, and were landed under the supervision of the general in charge.
We were delivered over to the hands of the superintendent, Mr.
Reitheimer, who entertained us very pleasantly, and showed great politeness to the ladies and gentlemen of' the party, especially to the ladies.
IHe explained all about the works, and opened a mysterious case.
In a very short time our heads were full of tunnels, drifts, headings, drills, champagne, nitroglycerine, reefs, derricks, pale sherry, and all that sort of thing.
He showed us his plans and specifications, and then induced us to step into a wooden box slung at the end of a derrick, and be lowered away into a pit of fifty or sixty feet in depth.
This pit formed a shaft which had been sunk on shore to begin the operations upon the reef.
From the shaft a series of tunnels extended very much like one's outstretched fingers.
Between the tunnels there were smaller tunnels, running from one to the other, leaving pillars to support the rock and the wate'r above.
A strong dam had been built around the mouth of the pit to prevent the water from flooding it.
The tunnels or headings, as they are technically called, have been designated by names instead of numbers.
Most of the men working there -are Cornish miners, and they are not fond of numerical designations.
The superintendent originally called the central heading Number One, but it is now known as Farragut Heading.
The others in order after it are Madison, Hum 74 UNDER HELLGATE.
At the centre of the reef, the heading which is the highest is known as Grant Heading.
Nine feet of' rock is left to fobrm a roof.
The rock is not very hard, but it is full of seams and fissures, through which the water is constantly dripping.
The narrow seams are closed by blocking, and when a wide seam is struck, it has to be closed outside.
In one case the miners came upon a horizontal seam, through which the water poured at the rate of six hundred gallons a minute, and before the flow could be stopped, the miners were standing in three or four feet of water.
Bags of clay are kept in readiness on the edge of the coffer dam, over each heading, so that, whenever a seam is found, it can be closed as quickly as possible.
After we were lowered into the pit, we dodged the streams of water as well as we could, and went inside.
The walking was not of the best, as the bottom of the tunnel was full of water, and rough fragments of rock were lying everywhere.
Men were at work in the headings, drilling holes in the rock, and preparing them for a blast.
They had penetrated to a distance of nearly one hundred and fifty feet from the entrance, and were obliged to work by the light of candles.
Three or four of them were working in each heading.
They were operating the drills by hand, but it was proposed to introdnuce drills operated by means of compressed air.
Work in those headings was not highly pleasant, as the -water was constantly dripping in; and nearly every one engaged there was as thoroughly drenched as he would have been if some one had thrown him into the river.
The miners are generally wet through when their day's work is ended, and their labor cannot be considered very healthful.
Of course almost our first inquiry was in regard to accidents.
We were told that very few had occurred.
It is a rule of the superintendent, when a https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-money-management-and-monte-carlo-simulation.html fails, for some reason, to go off, the charge in the hole shall not be disturbed; but a new hole shall be bored alongside the old one.
The floor of the mine is in most places about thirty feet below low-water mark.
The roof of rock overhead is nine feet in thickness, which would leave only twenty-one feet of water after the reef has fallen.
It is the intention, when the headings have been driven far enough, to sink the floor eight or nine feet below its present level, so that when the explosion takes place, there will be nearly thirty feet of water above the fallen mass of rock.
The water that comes through the seams is removed by drinking and gambling age in floridas of steam-pumps, and sometimes the pumps are required to swork very rapidly.
A very delicate piece of work, in connection with this mining operation,is that performed by the engineers and surveyors.
It is necessary to know the exact condition of the surface of the rock above each heading, in order that the miners can push their work in safety.
Careful soundings are made over every foot of the surface of the reef.
The exact bearings of every sounding are taken.
A tube is lowered down to the rock, and an iron rod is placed inside of this tube.
By means of this rod the nature of the rock below is determined.
Blows are struck with the rod, and from the sound of the blows a surveyor can understand whether the rock on which the tube rests is a detached piece or belongs to the entire reef.
Over fifteen thousand of these soundings have been made.
All the nitro-glycerine used for the explosion, is made on the premises, and only so much is made as is required from day to day.
The laboratory, as they call the place where this explosive material is manufactured, is an old boat-house, a little distance from the main works.
It contains a bench covered with dry plaster of Paris to absorb any drippings of nitroglycerine, a refrigerating chest, and cans in which the materials.
No one is allowed to handle the material unless perfectly conversant with its use, and every precaution is taken to prevent accidents.
One of these days the people of New York can be treated to an exhibition similar to that which was given some time 78 A COMING EXPLOSION.
There will be a grand explosion at Hallett's Point.
When the whole reef has been undermined, and the floor of the mine has been lowered to a sufficient depth, the pillars that support the roof will be honey-combed with holes to receive charges of nitro-glycerine, and cans of the explosive material will be scattered about in the different headings.
The electric wires will run from the battery at a safe distance, and at a given signal the connection will be made.
The waters of Hellgate will be thrown high in the air, and that reef which has stood so long an obstruction to navigation, and a detriment to the commerce of the greatest city of the United States, will disappear.
The waters of Hellgate will cease their bubbling and boiling over that dangerous rock, and the great ships and steamers on their way from Europe will enter the harbor, avoiding the shoals of Sandy Hook, and making their way through Long Island Sound and the East River to a safe and convenient anchorage.
IIOW COAL MINES ARE DISCOVERED.
UNTIL the beginning of the present century coal mines were discovered more by accident than in any other way.
The coal seams make their appearance at the surface, that is.
Coal on the surface is generally of a poor character, for the reason that it has been for many hundreds of years subject to the action of the elements; but on digging down a few feet, or a few dozen feet, the quality is found to be greatly improved.
When coal is thus found at the surface, a preliminary examination is conducted by cutting trenches, galleries, and pits, and if the conditions are favorable, the actual working of the mine can begin.
Sometimes the mine is operated by a few cuttings: like the works of an ordinary stone quarry.
Most coal mines have been discovered and opened in this way; but when the coal is concealed beneath the soil, and nothing is observed on the surface; it is discovered by chance, or by geological indications.
At the present day many coal mines are discovered by means of railway source, or in sinking wells.
Other mines are discovered in this way.
Some twenty years ago, while a railway was constructing in Vermont, the workmen came upon a bed of marble, and it'was found to be quite extensive.
Speculators bought the land in 79 80 DISCOVERING COAL MrINES.
In1813 a well was sunk atLa Sarthe, in France.
Amongst the rubbish a black earth was noticed, which was sent to a provincial debating society at Le Mans.
An extraordinary meeting of the society was called, and somebody suggested that this black earth might be coal.
It was immediately tried in the stove in the room where the meeting was held, and it was fobund that the earth burned readily.
Careful examinations were made, and valuable coal mines were opened in the vicinity.
Some of the mines in the United States have been discovered in places where burrowing animals had thrown up the earth.
Decomposed coal retains its original blackness; in several instances where it was found in the earth thus thrown up, careful observations were made, and work was immediately begun in search of coal.
Some valuable mines have been opened in this way.
In the year 1716 a very skilful coal miner in Belgium made a series of explorations, and discovered very valuable mines.
Under his direction they were explored fbor several years, but the works were at length abandoned, in consequence of the accumulation of water.
In all parts of the world miners have always found great difficuity irin proceeding in consequence of the interruptions caused by water, alld until the steam engine was invented there was an absence of sufficient pouwer for its removal.
In the eighteenth century deep pits in the Newcastle coal fields were filled with water, and it was - necessary to drain these pits before the coal could be taken out.
The ordinary pump was not sufficient for the purpose, and a more powerful engine became necessary.
Inventions seem:to come at a time when they are most needed, When the necessity for a powerfui- pump was greatest, the steam engine was invented.
Savory, Newcomen,: and Watt succeeded each other.
Captain ENTRANCE TO A COAL MINE.
INTFERIOR OF A COAL MINE.
INVENTING THE STEAM ENGINE.
Newcomen invented the atmospheric steam engine, ill which the piston was lifted by steam, and when this was condensedthe piston was forced to the bottom of the cylinder by the pressure of the atmosphere.
Afterwards Watt improved upon the engine, and overcame the difficulty of removing the vast accumulations of water in the deep mines, about the middle of the eighteenth century.
There is a curious relation between coal mines and the steam engine.
The latter was invented among the former, and without its application to pumping purposes the invention would have been to a great extent worthless, for by means of the very substance raised from the mines the engine is kept in motion.
The mines thus furnished the material with which the engine is operated, and only with the aid of the engine can the coal mines be properly worked.
In the petroleum regions of America the borings and pumpings are frequently conducted by means of the gas which rises from the earth.
Very often a steam engine is run without any other fuel than a stream of natural gas, conveyed beneath the boiler, and fed through a proper distributing apparatus.
To the coal mine we are also indebted for that great boon gambling statistics national modern civilization, the railway.
Coal is a heavy, bulky article, selling at a low price.
Not only must it be removed from the earth, but it must be carried at a cheap rate, and often for long distances.
Where there is no water communication the roads are the only mode of conveyance.
Originally common earth roads were used, and the coal was carried in ordinary carts.
These roads were improved, and, after a time, were in the condition of stone causeways, or macadamized tracks.
Afterwards wooden tracks were used, over which the wheels would roll more easily than upon ordinary roads.
These wooden tracks were at first placed in the underground ways of the mines, and afterwards extended to the ways above ground.
But this web page is not durable; it soon rots and wears away.
The wooden tracks were subsequently replaced by others of cast iron; originally these were grooved, but subsequently opinion casino gambling atlantic city map the were furnished with a lateral flange.
Afterwards wrought iron was substituted for cast iron.
In the first instance strips of cast iron were placed upon wooden rails, forming the oldfashioned strap rail.
Afterwards was invented the ordinary rail as we now find it.
The flange was removed from the rail, and placed upon the wheel, and thus, step by step, the modern railway came into existence.
Something more was wanted.
Cars were propelled by means of horse or man power.
It was necessary to apply the steam engine to the work of transportation.
Trefethick, a Cornish miner, constructed a locomotive with a simple boiler, like that of a stationary engine; but the heating surface and the motive power were too small.
It was not then supposed that the wheels would turn upon a smooth rail and move forward, and so the driving wheel was toothed and worked in a rack.
The speed was less than that of a carriage drawn by horses.
George Stephenson, an old coal miner, completed-the locomotive.
Seguin, in France, about the same time, invented the tubes which run through the locomotive boiler, and afford a passage to the flames.
They greatly increased the evaporating surface, and consequently the production of steam.
Stephenson discharged into the chimney the steam which had acted upon the piston, and thus gave a great draft to the furnaces.
The locomotive was then complete, and since that day it has only been improved in its details.
We have wandered a little from the search for coal to speak of the steam engine, the locomotive, and the railway.
Many coal -mines have been discovered by borings in search of artesian springs.
About thirty years ago, in one of the French provinces, a well was being bored, and, quite unexpectedly, the boring tools revealed the presence of coal.
As soon as this became known, everybody went to work searching, not for water, but for coal.
In a region sixty miles long BORING FOR COAL.
Everywhere coal was found, and altogether one hundred thousand acres of coal fields were added to the wealth of France.
Nearly link companies-were organized to work the new mines.
Since the discovery about fifty pits have been suiik, some of them to a depth of five hundred yards.
In 1851 the mines produced five thousand tons of coal.
At the present day their product is not'far from twenty millions of tons.
All this originated in a gambling symptoms of malaria for water.
The process of boring for coal is very much like, in fact almost identical with, boring for petroleum.
The boring rods are of wood, or iron, and are screwed together as the work proceeds.
The primitive instrument is a steel chisel, or bit, which strikes the rock and wears it away, precisely as an ordinary drill makes a hole in a stone ledge.
Boring machinery may be operated by steam power or by hand.
In the primitive way, a triangle, or pair of shears, supports the rods, and has an ordinary windlass, by which they may be raised or lowered.
One of the inconveniences attending the ordinary process of' boring is, that the rock is pulverized, and nothing but little fragments of dust and mud are brought to the surface.
Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether the stones through which the borer has passed are the proper ones to indicate the existence of coal, or whether the black matter comes from coal or shales.
All these disadvantages have been overcome by means of a new instrument, which is in general use.
A gouge in the form of a hollow cylinder is employed, furnished at the base with a row of teeth, or with several cutting blades of cast steel, and sometimes with a row of diamonds.
It is worked like an ordinary borer or auger, and cuts a solid column or cylinder out of the rock as regular in shape as if it had been turned in a lathe.
When this cylinder has been cut to a sufficient length, it is "DAD'S STRUCK ILE.
The boring tool will cut a hole eight inches in diameter, leaving a pillar of rock in the centre which can be broken off at any desired length and brought to daylight.
By means of this rock, the fossils in the stone may be studied, together with the structure of the strata, and all its peculiarities.
Beautiful specimens of rock are frequently obtained in this way from great depths.
Some borings have been made to a depth of nearly two thousand feet, with a diameter varying from eight to twenty inches.
As the boring tool reaches the depth at which the workmen expect to find coal, the operations are conducted with the greatest interest.
Every motion of the rod is carefully watched, and when the fragments of rock or earth are brought to the surface, they are examined with great care.
When the coal is discovered there is much rejoicing, as it is then certain that the prize has been gained.
It is the same in boring for coal as for oil.
When a man in Western Pennsylvania has "struck oil," and, according to the local expression, " struck it rich," he feels that his fortune is made.
More than one man has thus raised himself above his fellows when his search for coal was rewarded with success.
An old story, which has been told many times, and will bear telling a good many times more, is not inapplicable here.
During the period of the first oil excitement in Pennsyl.
The maiden received his addresses, and the pair were engaged to be married.
The father of the damsel was an oil seeker, and one day his search for oil was successful.
That evening the young man visited his lady love.
She received him coldly.
He asked the meaning of the coolness, and she curtly replied, "I can't marry you.
As the story goes, the damsel, who had been thus suddenly lifted from poverty to wealth in consequence of her father's oil discovery, remained unmarried for several months, but finally gave her hand to an engaging stranger from New York, who dissipated the family fortune as rapidly as it had been obtained.
In 1853 some wealthy gentlemen sought for coal near Creuzot, in France.
The spot was carefully selected, and for four years the work went on.
The tools penetrated to click depth of more than three thousand feet.
This is probably one of' the deepest borings ever made.
An unforeseen accident stopped the work at that point.
The bore-hole was less than an inch in diameter, and was made by means of a steel chisel fastened into wooden rods, which were screwed together.
The boring tool one day became broken at the bottom of the hole.
All kinds of grappling implements were lowered to tak6 hold of it, but none of them succeeded.
The chisel seemed to be firmly lodged at the bottom, and resisted every attempt to withdraw it.
After six months of effort the work was abandoned.
One of the parties interested offered to subscribe half a million francs to be given to any one who would invent an instrument that could withdraw the chisel.
Several days read more the abandonment of the enterprise, the foreman of the work mounted the staging and made another effort to raise the broken tool.
The whole power of the steam engine was exerted in pulling the ends of the rods, when suddenly the rope gave way.
The man's hand was caught and crushed between the rod and one of the planks through which it-passed.
He stood there and shouted to the man to saw off the rod in order to release him.
Then holding the remains of- the ruined hand in the uninjured one, he walked to Creuzot, three miles away, and without uttering a word of complaint, underwent amputation at the wrist.
After the coal is discovered, whether through surface indications or by borings, the preliminary working begins by 88 TUBBING A SHAFT.
Generally the first step is to sink a shaft or pit.
When the ground is soft, the pit must be walled with brick, stone, or timber, as fast as the descent is made.
When the pit is sunk through limestone and sandstone, the progress is slow, but the walls sustain themselves, and do not require either masonry or timbering.
A great inconvenience in sinking a shaft arises from springs and small streams of water.
In many places where this inconvenience occurs, the shaft is fitted with a wooden lining, or tubbing, as it is called, which is made of thick staves somewhat resembling those of casks, the joints being carefully fitted, in order https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/uk-gambling-commission-licensee-search.html keep out all water, and to withstand great pressure.
Sometimes this tubbing is made of iron, wrought or cast.
Where the ground is loose, or composed of sand and water, the tubbing is forced down from the top, or sinks by its own weight.
When this tubbing consists of masonry, it is built in a circle at the surface, and as fast as the earth is removed the masonry sinks.
A fresh circle is added at the surface, and thus the work goes on.
It was in this way that Brunel constructed the shafts which formed the descent into the Thames Tunnel.
Sometimes shafts are sunk under water, and in such case they are lowered in a perpendicular position until the ends strike the bottom, and then the water is pumped out.
An ingenious apparatus raises the mud from the bottom, double down gambling term a pump is kept at work to remove ways to cure gambling addiction water.
Sometimes, in sinking a shaft through quicksand, the water runs in faster than any ordinary mode of drainage will remove it.
Triger, an ingenious Frenchman, invented a machine by which the water could be pumped out.
The cylinders of iron were five or six feet in diameter, and he divided them into three compartments, as nearly air-tight as possible.
He forced compressed air into the lower one, and enclosed the workman inside.
The man was thus in a sort of diving-bell.
The compressed air, being forced against the bottom of the shaft, prevented the great mass of water from filtering through the sand.
The small quantity which filtered in was, by the force of the compressed air, driven through the sand pipe AN INGENIOUS APPARATUS.
click to see more, "and a cat suddenly to make her appearance, and you would have the picture of water reaching the bottom of our shafts through a thousand holes in the ground, if the presence of the air is lowered, and returning suddenly to the surface as soon as the air recovers its tension.
Trapdoors communicate from one stage to the other, by means of which the buckets are removed without any serious loss of the compressed air.
Shafts may be sunk through quicksands in this way to a depth pokemon diamond and pearl gambling eighty or one hundred feet without difficulty.
The laborers who pass their time in the comn pressed air work as easily as in the open atmosphere.
Some of them, however, cannot remain there long, especially if they have the drum of the ear very delicate, or are in the habit of drinking to excess.
The pressure of air in the chambers rarely exceeds three or four atmospheres.
This apparatus is frequently used for laying the foundation of bridges in the beds of rivers, where there are deep quicksands.
The famous bridge of Kehl, near Strasbourg, was constructed in this way, and the engineers say that without some such apparatus the construction of the bridge would have been impossible.
If a shaft has been sunk and properly supported, - that is to say, timbered or walled, - it is generally divided into compartments.
The shafts are generally from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter, and consequently there is plenty of space for dividing them.
One of the compartments will serve for the tubs, cages, or buckets, in which the coal is raised.
Another is for pumps to draw off the water, and sometimes where the miners go up and down by ladders a compartment is made especially for them.
In all cases one compartment in the shaft serves as an airway or chimney, whether the draft is free or not.
In some countries the law requires that there shall be more than one 90 LEGAL NECESSITIES.
Many of the owners of mines are abandoning the single shaft system, and gradually supplying their mines with more than one entrance.
Many terrible accidents, accompanied by a great loss of life, might have been avoided had the mines been constructed with more than one entrance or shaft.
A striking example of this is in the terrible calamity at Avondale, a few years ago.
The most approved arrangement of shafts for a large mine where there is explosive gas, and where water is to be pumped, is to sink one shaft for the pumps, another fobr raising coals, and a third for ventilation.
At the bottom of the third one a large furnace is always kept burning.
In some of the mines there may be half a dozen shafts.
Those through which the coal is drawn are called the winding pits, those where the pumps are fitted are called pumping pits, those where the men go up and down, are called labor shafts, and those for the passage of air are known as air shafts.
In many mining regions there is a class of pits that have been abandoned in consequence of the coal beneath being worked out.
Sometimes these pits are made use of for purposes of' ventilation.
Proper care is not always taken of these abandoned holes, and they form dangerous precipices, through which a careless person may easily fall and be killed.
Strangers strolling in the vicinity of mines occasionally step into these shafts and disappear, to be seen no more alive.
ADVENTURE OF THE AUTHOR DESCENDING A SHAFT.
LIFTED THROUGH A SHAFT BY ONE LEG.
MY first journey down the shaft of a mine had of course a novelty about it, and also partook of the sensational.
It was not a coal mine into which I descended, but a copper mine.
We stepped into a basket suspended by a hempen rope, and our conductor gave the signal to start.
The engineer slacked away the rope somehow, and we descended rapidly.
It seemed to me very much like falling out of a balloon.
I never have fallen out of a balloon, and therefore cannot say positively whether the sensation was like it or not.
I have been up in a balloon, and the sensation of going rapidly upward through the air is very much like that of going rapidly downward into the earth.
Down, down, down we went; and though the time was short, it seemed to me pretty long.
I had heard that there was generally at the bottom of the shaft of a mine a pool of water, which is called, in technical language, a " sump.
The descent was not quite eight hundred feet, but it seemed to me at least eight thousand.
Every little while we passed a hole, through which the light glimmered, and we could see, though only for the instant, into the various portions of the mine.
In one place, a miner was standing at the end of a level, and standing, too, very carelessly on the edge, and we narrowly escaped brushing him off.
Had we brushed against him, and thrown him from his perch to the bottom, he would not have been worth three cents a pound after being picked up.
When we reached the bottom, the basket was in a sort of basin, with a flooring of plank just even with its edge.
Miners were standing there with lanterns in their hands, or with candles stuck into their hats, and they assisted us to scramble off.
We had sufficient time to get out - or seemed to have; but one of the party, who had crouched to the bottom of the basket, was a long time gathering his limbs together, and picking himself up.
He did not pick up fast enough.
The engineer waited what he thought was a link time for us to get out, and then the basket began to move upward just'as the dilatory man was putting a leg over its side.
As the basket moved up, he was partly in and partly outside, and there was a prospect of witnessing a very pretty accident on his account.
He was a distinguished stranger, and it would never do to have a person of his prominence killed there.
Our conductor seized the signal-rope and gave it a violent pull, which caused the engineer to send the basket back again, and wait until everything was ready.
The dilatory visitor scrambled out of IN THE SHAFT OF A MINE.
The shaft of a mine is a very good place for accidents.
Many of these occur from the carelessness of the miner, or the engineers, and sometimes from their incompetency.
By the old system, baskets or buckets'were raised or lowered by the winding or unwinding of a rope.
Of late years, a cage, travelling red ghost tuileries gambling den guides, is used, which is much safer than the old system.
The miners are careless in consequence of their long acquaintance with the mines.
The first descent into a mine generally raises the pulse, and very often seriously alarms the visitor.
The miners will stand carelessly on the edge of a bucket; but the strangers generally seat themselves at the bottom, and it is sometimes necessary to turn the bucket upside down on reaching the floor of the mine before they can be induced to come out.
The shaft always appears smaller than it really is on account of the darkness.
It is never well lighted, and very often the glimmer of the lamps is just sufficient to make darkness visible.
Visitors are always subjects of merriment to the miners.
They show more or less fear in all their movements, especially in ascending and descending; but the miners go up and down the shaft laughing and talking, just as the soldier goes under fire and faces the storms of bullets.
The sight of the miners going down is a curious one.
The men stand r dy around the mouth of the shaft, and at the sound of the bell they crowd into the tubs or cages, or go down the ladders.
Their voices can be heard a moment, and then they gradually become fainter and fainter, till lost in the distance.
In some mines on the continent of Europe, prayers are offered by the miners before going down; in most mines, however, this see more neglected, but many of the men cross themselves on leaving the upper air, and breathe a short prayer to St.
Barbe, the great patron saint of the miners.
It is interesting to note the sudden pause in the conversation, to see the hands making the sign of the cross, the lips of 94 INTERESTING PRAYER SCENES.
I remember,o on one occasion, visiting a mine in Russia, whbre -the men gathered at the mouth of the pit seemed engaged in some sort of a dispute.
Suddenly a bell was sounded, and in an instant every cap was removed, and every man went through the Russian ceremonial of crossing himself.
This ceremony over, caps were restored to the heads of the owners, and the conversation was resumed as loudly and excitedly as ever.
I have seen a soldier standing at his'post, as a sentry, when the bell sounded, or the gun was fired, telling the -hour of sunset.
As the flag descended from the staff, the soldier supported his musket with his left arm, while with his right hand he performed the ceremonial which had been taught him by the church.
The shaft-is frequently called the miners' tomb; and it is said that the Belgians have intentionally named it The Grave La d-osse.
Great improvements have been made in the mode of ascending or descending, and at the present day the apparatus is considered nearly perfect.
Besides this, the heads of the men are shielded by hats made of' sheet iron or stout leather.
An indicator is kept in front of' the engine man, so that he knows precisely the position of the tub; and if there are two tubs in the shaft, one ascending and the other descending, he may know when they pass on their way.
In some coal mines the tubs or cages are double-decked, and some of them have four tiers or decks.
The greatest improvement is in the use of safety cages.
These consist literally of cages with a strong top to protect gg g � 1000i~~~~~~~~~~UNl DESt-IENDING A SHArFT.
If anything falls, the top of the cage protects the men.
If the rope breaks, a spring above the cage is set free, and catches in the guide, bringing the cage to a stand-still suddenly.
A great many accidents have been prevented by this contrivance.
Some of the safety cages, instead of wooden guides at the sides, are provided with long, stout strips of cast or wrought iron.
If the rope breaks, a spring at the top is suddenly thrown out, and catches in one of these notches.
Safety cages of an improved pattern are in use in many of the principal hotels of America, as well as in mines.
They }have been manufactured comparatively but a few years.
Soon after the Gould and Curry mine, in Nevada, was opened, one of these cages was placed in the principal shaft.
The owners of the mine were doubtful of its powers, and the owner of the machine set about convincing them.
When everything was ready, he loaded the cage with a ton of stone, then stepped on its top, and standing there suspended several just click for source feet above the bottom, he deliberately cut the rope.
A shudder ran through the crowd of spectators who were standing around; but their terror was of' short duration.
The stout springs were thrown out, and the cage did not descend six inches, after the severance of the rope, before it came to a stop.
Ludicrous incidents sometimes occur in these hoisting machines.
In one of the hotels in New York, not many months ago, the machinery one day became deranged while the elevator was in use.
It was full of passengers, and was between two floors in such a way that nobody could get in or out.
It required an hour and a half to arrange the machinery, and in this hour and a half a dozen persons were closely confined in the cage.
Such a combination of growls was never before heard in so small a space at one time in that hotel.
It was about half past two o'clock in the afternoon when the elevator stopped.
One man had a note to pay before three o'clock.
He did not pay it.
One lady in the elevator had 98 " PLENTY OF MEN.
Another man was very thirsty, and was on his way to his room to order up a drink.
And so through all the dozen persons who were detained in the elevator.
Every one had an important engagement, or a special reason for being in a hurry, when hurrying was of no earthly use.
In some of the mines of Europe there are neither safety cages, tubs, nor baskets.
At the salt mines of WVielizka, in Austrian Poland, the miners go down at the end of a long rope, https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/blocking-access-to-gambling-websites.html which several loops are faistened.
Each loop has a band across it to support the back.
The miner seats himself in one of these loops, leans against the band to support his back, clings to the rope with one hand, and holds his candle in the other.
Half a dozen men form a bunch in this way, and sometimes there is another bunch above them.
At a little distance the groups very much resemble a living chandelier.
Not only miners, but visitors, are lowered in this way, and the descent is very trying to a nervous person.
A traveller who went into the Wielizka mines in this way says he asked if men did not sometimes fall out of the loops.
Men are abundant about here, and when one is killed there is always somebody ready to take his place.

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Underground; or, Life below the surface.
Incidents and accidents beyond the light of day; startling adventures in all parts of the world; mines and the mode of working them; under-currents of society; gambling and its horrors.
Underground; or, Life below the surface.
Incidents and accidents beyond the light of day; startling adventures in all parts of the world; mines and the mode of working them; under-currents of society; gambling and its horrors.
INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS BEYOND THE LIGHT OF DAY; STARTLING ADVENTURES IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD; MINES AND THE MODE OF WORKING THEM; UNDER-CURRENTS OF SOCIETY; GAMBLING AND ITS HORRORS; CAVERNS AND THEIR MYSTERIES; THE DARK WAYS OF WICKEDNESS; PRISONS AND THEIR SECRETS; DOWN IN THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA; STRANGE STORIES OF THE DETECTION OF CRIME.
AUTHOR OF "CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD;" "OVERLAND THROUGH ASIA,m"THE BOY-EXILES," ETC.
Entered, according to Act of Congress.
IN presenting this volume to the public the author would say that it has been his endeavor to make a book in which he could describe the life, not only of the miner, but of all who work under ground � whether literally or metaphorically.
By interspersing the story with numerous anecdotes and incidents he has hoped to render its perusal less fatiguing than it might be had he restricted his labors to collecting a mass Of dry details, and making a liberal use of technical terms.
A glance at the table of contents will show how far he has travelled out of the beaten track in his effort to throw light upon dark subjects, and draw attention to a topic that might be wearisome if treated in its most restricted form.
He has not confined himself to any one part of the globe, and the most of the incidents which he-narrates are now for the first time given to the public.
The author has not hastily performed his work.
Neither has he relied solely upon his own efforts and information, click here he well knows that no one person, however industrious, can gather all that may be known upon any important subject.
Remembering the adage that two heads are better than one, and supplementing it with the assertion that ten heads are better than two, he has employed all means in his power, and secured the assistance of others, in order to make this book as comprehensive as possible.
He has consulted many books on mining matters and kindred subjects, and devoted much time to a careful investigation of the works of various scientific and popular writers.
He has been 5 6 PREFACE.
Numerous books of travel have been examined, files of newspapers have been searched, and many individuals, familiar with subjects which it was proposed to treat, have been consulted in the author's wanderings after light.
He trusts that his labors will not prove to have been in vain.
Several literary gentlemen have aided the author in his enterprise.
He is permitted to mention, as among these, Mr.
Junius Henri Browne, of New York, and the late Colonel Albert S.
Evans, -of San Francisco.
In preparing the matter for the press, it has been found convenient to make use of words borrowed from the French and other languages, and also of terms more or less technical in their character.
They are not numerous, and are so well understood either by context or by popular use that riverboat gambling iowa glossary is not considered necessary.
The author takes this opportunity to thank the newspaper press and the public for the generous reception accorded to his previous publications, and, in the language of the business card of the period, he hopes to merit a continuance of the same.
ASTOR HousE, NEW YORK, May, 1873.
SAVAGE THEORIES ABOUT COAL.
ANCIENT AND MODERN FIRE WORSHIPPERS.
THE CAVERNS OF NAPLES.
DROWNED IN BOILING WATER.
OPERATIONS AT HELLGATE, EELLGATE AND SANDY HOOK.
HOW COAL MINES ARE DISCOVERED.
ADVENTURE OF THE AUTHOR DESCENDING A SHAFT.
A MINUTE OF PERIL.
A MINER'S VIEWS OF DANGER.
SPECULATIONS IN NEVADA MINES.
ONE HUNDRED PER CENT.
REMARKABLE BURGLARIES, - UNDER GROUND FOR DISHONEST PURPOSES.
WONDERFUL ADROITNESS OF BURGLARS.
OCCUPATION OF A LAWYER'S OFFICE.
THICKNESS OF COAL SEAMS.
EXPLOSIONS IN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN MINES.
A DAY IN POMPEII.
A VISIT TO POMPEII - NEAPOLITAN HACKMEN, - AN INTERESTING ADVENTURE.
VESUVIUS AND ITS ERUPTIONS.
THE GREAT ERUPTION OF VESUVIUS.
W- HAT IT DID.
PERILS OF THE MINER.
NARROW ESCAPE OF THE AUTHOR.
INUNDATION OF A MINE ON THE LOIRE.
THE WIELICZKA SALT MINES.
THE GREAT WIELICZKA SALT MINES, THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD.
CORAL CAVES IN THE PACIFIC.
ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN.
UNDERGROUND IN SAN FRANCISCO.
GRAVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION.
EXPERIENCES IN WILD LIFE.
NECESSITIES OF TRAVELLERS IN WILD COUNTRIES.
DEFENCES AGAINST WILD ANIMALS.
CACHE OF A WHISKEY KEG, AND HOW IT WAS MADE.
THE GREEN VAULTS OF DRESDEN.
THE RICHEST TREASURY IN THE WORLD.
WONDERFUL CARVINGS, MOSAICS, AND CURIOSITIES.
WHAT AN ENTERPRISING SCOUNDREL MIGHT ACCOMPLISH.
THE CATACOMBS OF PARIS.
THE FAIR CAPITAL UNDERMINED.
SIX MILLIONS OF SKELETONS.
A JOURNEY THROUGH THE CITY OF THE DEAD.
WINE AND BEER CELLARS.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 346 14: CONTENTS.
ITS HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION.
DESTRUCTION OF THE BASTILE.
DIAMONDS AND DIAMOND MINES.
HOW DIAMONDS ARE OBTAINED.
THE UNDER-WORLD OF PARIS.
THE IMMORALITY AND LICENTIOUSNESS OF THE CAPITAL.
THE EAST RIVER BRIDGE.
LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS UNDER WATER.
THE DAYS OF SLAVERY.
WAR AND PRISON ADVENTURES.
EXPERIENCES OF AN ARMY CORRESPONDENT.
TWO YEARS AS A CAPTIVE.
ROMANCE AND MYSTERY OF CAVES.
INSURANCE AND ITS MYSTERIES.
HISTORY OF FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE.
PURSUIT BY DETECTIVES AND CAPTURE OF THE SWINDLER.
TUNNELS AMONG THE ANCIENTS.
LAUGHABLE INCIDENTS IN RAILWAY TUNNELS.
THE MONT CENIS TUNNEL.
MOUNTAIN CHAINS BETWEEN NATIONS.
LAYING OUT THE WORK.
THE SEWERS OF PARIS.
THEIR FIRST GREAT INSPECTION.
DENIS, AND THE MARKETS.
HIS SUFFERINGS AND ESCAPE.
PROPERTIES AND PECULIARITIES OF MERCURY, OR QUICKSILVER.
PRACTICAL VALUE OF AN EARTHQUAKE.
GUANO AND THE COOLIE TRADE.
GUANO AND ITS CHARACTER.
THE GREAT CALAMITY IN PENNSYLVANIA.
DISCOVERY OF THE BODIES.
IRON AND IRON MINES.
IRON AND ITS VALUE.
TOILING IN A SIBERIAN MINE.
A NARROW ESCAPE FROM DEATH.
~ 599 18 CONTENTS.
LEAD MINES OF IOWA.
BLUFFS AT DUBUQUE, IOWA.
TORTURES OF THE INQUISITION.
UNDERGROUND IN THE METROPOLIS.
THE EARLY HISTORY OF MANKIND.
RAPID TRANSIT IN NEW YORK.
RELATIONS OF THE STEAM ENGINE TO HONESTY.
SILVER MINES AND MINING.
THE GAMBLING HELLS OF GERMANY.
THE FOUR GREAT SPAS.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF GAMBLING.
~, 705 2 20 CONTENTS.
GAMING AND GAMESTERS ABROAD.
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC SUMMER RESORTS.
BRIGANDAGE AS A FINE- ART.
HIGHWAY ROBBERY IN MODERN TIMES.
DOGS IN MINES, AND THE EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND CONFINEMENT.
MYSTERIES OF THE GRAND JURY.
SITTING ON A GRAND JURY.
GOLD AND ITS USES.
THE AUTHOR AS A GOLD MINER.
VICISSITUDES OF GOLD MINING.
VARIOUS WAYS OF MINING GOLD.
HIS MANAGEMENT OF A MILL.
COPPER AND COPPER MINES.
THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
THEIR AGE AND EXTENT.
STRANGE EXPERIENCE OF TWO AMERICANS.
THEIR NUMBER AND EQUIPMENT.
THE PLEASURE OF THE BOTTLE.
TRICKS OF POLITICAL LIFE.
TERSE REMARKS OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN.
WONDERFUL ESCAPE FROM A FRENCH PRISON.
DECLINE OF THE SPORT.
DIAMOND AND OTHER SWINDLES.
THE GREAT DIAMOND SWINDLE OF 1872.
HOW THE FRAUD WAS EXPOSED.
FATE OF THE SWINDLER.
CURIOSITIES OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS.
NOW THE BUSINESS IS PROSECUTED IN NEW YORK.
PHASES OF UNDERGROUND LIFE, - - - FRONTISPIECE.
AUSTIN, NEVADA; A WESTERN MINING TOWN, - - 34 3.
IMPRESSIONS OF PLANTS FOUND IN COAL.
DISCOVERY OF ANTHRACITE COAL IN PENNSYLVANIA, - 40 5.
BAY OF NAPLES, - - - 50 6.
NERO'S GYMNASIUM, - - - - - - 68 8.
VIEW OF HELLGATE FROM NEGRO POINT, - - 64 9.
GENERAL VIEW OF WORKS AT HALLETT'S POINT, - - 64 10.
VIEW OF SHAFT FROM THE DAM, - - 74 11.
ENTRANCE TO A COAL MINE, - - check this out - - 80 13.
INTERIOR OF A COAL MINE, - - - 80 14.
SECTIONS OF AN ENGLISH COAL MINE, - - - - 100 16.
NEW YORK SPECULATORS AT THE MINES, - - - 106 17.
DEMONSTRATING THE VALUE OF A SILVER MINE, - 106 18.
THE PHILADELPHIA BANK ROBBERY, - - - 120 19.
PEARL DIVING IN THE EAST INDIES, - - - - - 130 20 EXPLOSION OF FIRE DAMP, - - - - - - 144 21.
DISCOVERY OF LOAVES OF BREAD BAKED 1800 YEARS AGO, - 160 22.
BODIES OF POMPEIANS CAST IN THE ASHES, - - - 166 23.
DESCENT OF VESUVIUS, - - - - - - - 176 24.
THE CRATER OF VESUVIUS, - - - - - - 182 25.
INUNDATION OF A MINE, - - - - - - 200 27.
DESCENDING THE SHAFT �WIELICZKA SALT MINES, - 214 28.
CHAPEL IN THE WIELICZKA SALT MINES, - - - 214 29.
GETTING OUT SALT, - - - - - - - 220 30.
ILLUMINATION OF THE INFERNAL LAKE, - - - 220 31.
BATTLE OF THE WARRIORS, - - - - - - 236 32.
DRINKING PISCO IN A SAN FRANCISCO SALOON, - - 250 33.
AUSTRALIAN NATIVES BURNING THEIR DEAD, - - - 278 34.
AN INDIAN BURIAL PLACE, - - 278 35.
THE TOMBS OF THE KINGS AT THEBES, - - - - 286 36.
HALL IN THE TOMBS OF ASSASSEEF, - - - 286 24 INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PUMPING WELL ON OIL CREEK, - - 8334 38.
THE GRAND HOTEL.
PLACE DE LA BASTILE.
DESTRUCTION OF THE BASTILE, 3- - 68 42.
THE DIAMOND FIELDS OF SOUTH AFRICA, - 8 372 43.
RIVER WASHING-CRADLING FOR DIAMONDS, - - 878 45.
CELEBRATED DIAMONDS OF THE WORLD, - - - - 884 46.
TIlE ORLOFF DIAMOND, - - - 384 47.
THE SANCY, - - 384 51.
STAR OF THE SOUTH-ROUGH, 3 - 884 52.
THE DRESDEN, - - - this web page 384 53.
THE REGENT DIAMOND, - o.
AUSTRALIAN BRILLIANT, - 8 384 56.
THE SHAH, - 384 61.
GRAND AVENUE OF THE CHAMPS ELYSEES.
BALL AT MABILLE, - - - - 400 63.
SCENE AT CLOSERIE DES LILAS, - - - - 404 64.
EAST RIVER BRIDGE, - - - - 416 65.
OUR QUARTERS IN LIBBY PRISON, - - - - 446 66.
STALAGMITES IN THE CAVE.
EXECUTION OF A CHINESE CRIMINAL, - - - - 488 69.
EASTERN ENTRANCE'TO HOOSAC TUNNEL, - 500 70.
WESTERN ENTRANCE TO HOOSAC TUNNEL, - - - 500 71.
WORK AT THE HEADING. .
BORING MACHINE USED IN MOUNT CENIS TUNNEL, - - 518 73.
SIDE VIEW OF BORING MACHINE.
THE MADELEANE CHURCH, - 530 76.
SUBTERRANEAN PARIS, - - 536 77.
THE GREAT SEWER, - - - 536 78.
QUICKSILVER MINES OF NEW ALMADEN, - - 554 79.
BLASTING IN THE QUICKSILVER MINES, - 554 80.
BURNING OF A COOLIE SHIP, 568 81.
COOLIES PLANNING A MUTINY, - - - - 574 82.
MUTINY ON THE LOWER DECK, - 574 83.
THE AVONDALE DISASTER-REMOVING BODIES FROM THE MINE, 586 84.
AN AUTO-DA-FE IN SPAIN, - - 622 86.
BLAZING OVENS FILLED WITH HERETICS, - - 630 87.
A NEW YORK "DIVE," - 640 89.
pokercruncher review DESCENT ON THE GAMBLERS.
SECTION OF THE BROADWAY UNDERGROUND RAILWAY, - 658 91, TUNNELLING BROADWAY FOR THE UNDERGROUND RAILWAY, - 662 92.
INTERIOR OF PNEUMATIC PASSENGER CAR, - - - 666 93.
PORTAL OF THE BROADWAY TUNNEL, - 666 94.
THE BOMB FERRY-TRAVEL IN THE 30TH CENTURY, - - 672 95.
THE PUBLIC HIGHWAY-TRAVEL IN THE 30TH CENTURY, - - 672 96.
THE KEEL BOAT, 680 97.
A MISSISSIPPI RAFT, - 680 98.
PIRATES OF THE MISSISSIPPI, - - - - 686 99.
DISCOVERY OF SILVER IN PERU, - 690 100.
INTERIOR OF A SILVER MINE, - - - - - 690 101.
ENTRANCE TO A SILVER MINE OF CENTRAL AMERICA, - - 696 102.
INDIAN SILVER MINERS AT WORK, - - - - 696 103.
ONE METHOD OF WASHING FOR SILVER, - .
CONVERSATIONHAUS AT BADEN, - - - - - 708 106.
CONCERT IN THE GARDENS AT BADEN, - - - 708 107.
GAMBLING SALOON AT BADEN, - 722 108.
ESQUIMAUX DWELLINGS, - - 736 109.
ROBBERY OF THE DILIGENCE, - - - - - - 750 110.
THE KNOWING WITNESS, - - - - - - 778 111.
THE INTERESTING WITNESS, - - - - - -778 112.
THE DEAF WITNESS, - - - - - - - 778 advertising regulations us />THE IRRELEVANT WITNESS, - - 778 114.
THE DISCOVERER OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA, 790 115.
SUTTER'S MILLS WHERE GOLD WAS DISCOVERED, - - 790 116.
EMIGRANT TRAIN OF GOLD HUNTERS IN 1849, - - - 794 117.
CHINESE GOLD MINING IN CALIFORNIA, - - - 794 118.
GOLD WASHING IN THE CALIFORNIA MINES, - - 798 119.
MINERS AROUND THEIR CAMP-FIRE, - 810 121.
GROUND SLUICING, - - - - - - - 814 122.
HYDRAULIC MINING, - - - - - - - 814 123.
A COPPER MINE OF THE LAKE SUPERIOR REGION, - - 818 124.
INTERIOR OF A COPPER MINE, - - - - - - 818 125.
DRILLING IN A COPPER MINE, - - - - - 824 126.
CATACOMBS OF ROME-THE THREE BROTHERS, - - - 832 127.
LOST IN THE CATACOMBS, - - - - - - 840 129.
DREAM OF A DIAMOND SWINDLER, - - - - 910 130.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE EARTH'S WEALTH.
EXPERIENCE WITH A NOVICE.
We are constantly seeking information regarding the affairs of others, and we generally manage in some way to obtain what we seek.
We store our minds with useful and-useless knowledge of the manners and customs of people in other lands, and of the private lives and histories of our near neighbors.
Very often the material we thus lay aside in our mental storehouses does not particularly concern us, but, like Mrs.
Toodles, in her purchase of a door-plate bearing the name of Thompson with a p, we think it will be-handy to have at some future day, and so we keep it.
With a fair devotion to inquiries, and a well-cultivated memory, a life of threescore and ten years ought, at this day, to cacquaint its possessor with a general knowledge of the how and why of the existence of at least half the inhabitants of the globe.
But it may be set down as an axiom, that one half the world does not live as the other half does.
People's tastes differ, and there are very few who would wish to live exactly like others, especially if those to whom the choice is offered are richer than the others.
There are many who would not change places with their wealthy neighbors, and it is more than probable that their wealthy neighbors would not change places wvith them.
The majority of sailors are not happy when on shore, but are constantly sighing for a wet sheet and a flowing sea, while the majority of landsmen have no desire for such hydropathic experience.
When Mungo Park travelled in Africa, the natives expressed great pity for him because he had lost his color; they constantly mourned over the unhappy lot of the white man, and would have been quite unwilling to change complexions with him.
A comparatively small portion of the human race lives, or would wish to live, beneath the surface of the globe.
Most of us rarely go there voluntarily, and our first visits of'any important duration are made after we have shuffled off this mortal coil and invoked the aid of the sexton.
Then we are carried there without protest, and the earth is filled above us in sufficient depth to guard us against ordinary intrusions.
We may be certain that none of our friends will come in living flesh to join us, and when death brings them to our side their slumbers will be as long and peaceful as our own.
The earth, beneath its surface, is regarded by many, as the dwelling-place of Death, to be contemplated with a shudder, and to be visited only when life has left us.
But have they ever considered how much of life there is which the light of day does not reveal?
The plants in our WEALTH UNDERGROUND.
The trees of the forest spread their branches and unfold.
Through these lower limbs,hidden fiom the light of the sun and sheltered from the peltings of the pitiless storm, life comes to the trunk and to the upper branches.
Lay bare these lower branches, and tear them from the earth, and the tree soon withers and perishes.
The grass carpets the meadow, the flowers adorn the hill-sides, wheat and corn grow in the fields, the trees spread their shading limbs and drop their fruits in their season, and without these the world would be desolate.
But all have their existence underground, and they cling as tenaciously to the bosom of Mother Earth as the men who walk among or upon them cling to that mysterious element which we call life.
A great portion of the wealth of the globe lies beneath its surface.
Gold and silver form the circulating medium of all civilized and many savage people.
Their possession is wealth, as the lack of them is poverty; their coming brings happiness, and their departure leaves misery.
From the earth they are taken, and in their pursuit men undergo many privations and suffer many hardships.
The diamond that sparkles on delicate fingers has been washed from the accumulations which many centuries had piled above it.
Iron, copper, tin, and other metals are sought by the light of the miner's lamp, far away from the rays of the sun, and sometimes in long tunnels pushed beneath the ever-restless ocean.
Ages and ages ago the hand'of Nature deposited beds of coal in every quarter of the globe, and to-day they afford light and heat to millions of the human race.
Down, down, hundreds and thousands of feet below the surface of the earth these coal-beds are spread, sometimes over areas many miles in extent, and promising a supply of fuel for many centuries to come.
Thousands of men find profitable employment in these mines; and but for their labors, those of us who live above the surface would often suffer the pangs of cold.
As the coal burns brightly in our grates and fills our rooms with heat, do we think of the many centuries it has been awaiting our use, and of the toil that has placed it in our control?
As we look at the great network of railways, spreading over our continent, bringing north and south, east and west, nearer together, annihilating time and space and sometimes annihilating peopledo we think that but for the mines of coal and iron our country to-day would be little better than it was half a century ago, and much of its area, now rich in commercial and agricultural prosperity, would be little else than a wilderness?
To coal and iron the world owes much of its present advancement, and both these substances come from beneath the surface of the earth.
The most valuable minerals, and those which employ the greatest amount of capital, are of comparatively recent exploitation.
Iron has done more good to the world than gold, and is many times more valuable; but gold was known and used long before iron was discovered.
Coal is more valuable than copper, and gold, and diamonds; the world could go on without these last, as other minerals could take their places, but nothing now known could take the place of coal.
From many parts of the globe the forest primeval has been removed, and countries that a few-vhundred years ago were thickly wooded are now almost denuded of timber.
Should the working of coal mines cease to-day, there would speedily ensue a scarcity of fuel, and, if prolonged, this scarcity would result in much suffering and death.
The exploitation of coal is one of the great interests of the British Isles, and is of no inconsiderable importance in the United States.
More than two thirds of the mining enterprise of the world is devoted to it; yet this substance, possessing no beauty, and to a casual observer devoid of all merit, is included among the most recently discovered minerals.
Comparatively few of those Who walk the earth to-day have ever been farther within it than to the bottom of a cellar; and in many localities even this experience has been denied to FUNNY EXPERIENCE OF A NOVICE.
If an enumeration were made to-day of all persons in the United States who have ever been underground more than fifty feet from the surface, and more than one hour at a time, the number would be found surprisingly small.
I once accompanied a gentleman from Boston in a descent into a mine a hundred feet in depth, and having a single gallery about eighty feet long, leading from the foot of the shaft.
It was an old story to me, but a new one to my Boston friend, who clung to the rope of our bucket as convulsively as a drowning man would clutch a life buoy.
When we reached the bottom, and crept along the low gallery, his heart beat violently, and he several times wished himself safe above ground.
When we finished our exploration, and returned to the upper air, I asked him what he thought of the mine.
When he regained his voice, he said, � "You might tell me of such a mine, and I should be obliged to believe you, though I can hardly conceive one could be made so large.
But as for taking me into such a place, you could never do it without tying me and carrying me there.
Catch me in such a place as that, never.
When the boy returned, he was thoughtful for a long time, and finally remarked that he never supposed the world was so large.
The miner's life is one of vicissitudes and dangers.
He is shut out from the light of day, and depends upon his lamp or 32 - DANGERS UNDERGROUND.
Shut up in the earth, all is night to him; and whether the sun shines or is obscured by clouds, whether the here is in the heavens, surrounded by twinkling stars, or the whole dome above is wrapped in darkness, makes little difference to him.
All is night, and without his artificial light, all is blackest darkness.
The changes that fbllow the earth's daily revolutions are unknown to the miner as he performs his work, and if he remained continually below, the seasons might come and go without his knowledge.
Summer's heat and winter's frost do not reach him; there is for him but one season - the season that has endured for millions of years, and may endure for millions of years to come.
The temperature of the surrounding earth, unless varied by that of the air driven to him by the machinery of his mine, or by the heat of his lamp, is the temperature in which he performs his- labors.
Day and ni:ght, spring and autumn, new moon and full moon, may come and go, but they extend not their influence to the depths of the mine.
There are dangers from falls of rock and earth, which may cause immediate death, or enclose their victims in a living tomb.
There are dangers from water, which may enter suddenly, flood the mine, and drown all who cannot reach the opening in time to escape.
There are dangers from the atmosphere, which may become foul, and leave him who breathes it lying dead, far away from those who would gladly assist him, but would lose their lives should they go to his rescue.
His light grows dim, and warns him of his peril; as he starts for a place of safety the; light goes out, and in blackest darkness he falls and dies, unless speedily rescued.
There are dangers from fire, where the atmosphere becomes charged with inflammable gas; it is lighted by an accident, and an explosion follows, in which dozens and sometimes hundreds of men are killed.
There are dangers from fire outside the mine, as in the horrible affair of Avondale.
There are dangers from the breaking of ropes, and the derangement of machinery, from the carelessness of those whose duty it is to exercise the utmost caution, and from other causes to be hereafter enumerated.
Laborers can always be found fbr-any honest employment, and too often for employment quite outside the bounds of honesty.
The earliest life underground was in caves of natural formation.
All over the globe there are caverns where men have lived, sometimes under concealment, sometimes for sanitary reasons, and sometimes because they saved the labor of constructing houses.
Some of these caverns are of great dimensions, and could furnish shelter for thousands of men, while others are adapted to the wants of only a few persons.
Many caverns and caves are not available as dwelling-places, but are visited only from motives of curiosity on the part of travellers, or from a desire for gain on the part of those who seek whatever may be valuable.
Many caves have histories romantic or tragic, and some of them combine romance and tragedy in about equal proportions.
Tales of love and war, of fidelity and treachery, and of all the contending passions and experiences of human nature, can be found in the-histories of these excavations which have been made by no mortal hands.
Metaphorically, there is a great deal of underground life above the surface of the earth.
AMen devote time, and patience, and study to the acquisition of wealth by measures that are as far removed from the light of honesty as the tunnel the miner drives beneath the mountain is removed from the light of the sun.
One builds a reputation which another burrows beneath and destroys, as the engineers at Hell Gate undertook to destroy the rocky reef which sunk the ships of many a navigator, from the days of Hendrick Hudson to the present.
Dishonest men hope for wealth, they care not how obtained, and in its pursuit they frequently imitate the labors of the miner.
Shafts are sunk and tunnels are driven; the pick, the drill, and the powder-blast perform their work; operations are 34 MININIG IN METAPHOR.
A great city, in its moral or immoral life, is cut and seamed with subterranean excavations more extensive than those of the richest coal-fields of England or Belgium.
Wall Street is a mining centre greater than the whole of Pennsylvania, and to one who knows it intimately it reveals daily more shafts and tunnels than can be found in Nevada or Colorado.
The career of a politician is not unlike that of the miner, though it is frequently much more difficult to follow.
The miner may be tracked and found, but there is many a politician whose devious windings would baffle the keenest detective that ever lived.
To describe underground life in its many phases is the.
The experience of the miner is full of adventures of an exciting character; so exciting, indeed, that there is no occasion to use fiction in place of fact.
The hardships, the difficulties,'and the dangers that surround him who labors beneath the earth's surface might fbrm the basis of a story more interesting than the most skilfully constructed romance ever printed.
It is an old adage, that Truth is stranger than Fiction: the experience of the miner affords better illustrations of the correctness of this adage than does that of any other go here />Especially is this the case if weconsider Underground Life in its metaphoric as well as in its literal sense, and note the devious and hidden ways in which many of our fellow-men pass the greater part of their existence.
SAVAGE THEORIES ABOUT Https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-nuns-torrance.html />IN the autumn of 1865, a small party connected with the survey of a telegraph route through North-eastern Asia, was landed at the mouth of the Anadyr River, near Behring's; Straits.
Another party was landed in Kamchatka, and proceeded over land towards the north.
The savages described them as the most wonderful white mea they had ever seen.
To their untutored minds the work of thewhite men was something wonderful.
It is probable that the comparatively recent discovery of mineral coal is due in a great measure to its close resemblance to stone.
A savage or civilized man knows that an, ordinary stone, whether white, red, blue, green, or gray, willi not burn; then why should he suppose that a black stone 3 37.
Until a comparatively recent date there has been no great demand for coal as fuel.
Many parts of the world at the present day are covered with immense forests, and for a hundred and perhaps thousands of years there will be no occasion in these localities to make use of the mineral fuel.
It is supposed that the Greeks and Romans had some knowledge of fossil fuel, bu.
There were no manufactories and smelting establishments, and the working of metals was carried on in a very primitive way.
Wood and charcoal were the only fuel, and most of the countries inhabited at that early day were favored with a warm climate, that for the most part of the year was comfortable enough by day, while blankets and other bed-clothing gave sufficient warmth by night.
The laws of heat were not known; the pressure of vapor was not even thought of; or suspected; and mechanical force was derived from wind, from water, and from animated beings.
When the winds did not blow the galleys were rowed by convicts, and in the absence of a stream of water, animals, and sometimes men, turned tile mill.
Occasionally in building aqueducts, large beds of coal were laid bare, but no attention was paid to them.
In making one aqueduct, a branch of a canal was cut through a bed of rock, and at the bottom of that bed a valuable seam of coal was found, but nobody appears to have troubled his head gambling advertising uk it.
It is supposed by most writers that the discovery of coal occurred in the East.
The Chinese have been credited with the discovery and invention of nearly everything in the world except the discovery of America and the invention of the electric telegraph.
It is pretty certain that they were acquainted with mineral fuel from a very remote antiquity.
They knew how to work it, and apply it to industrial uses, such as bakinig porcelain, drying tea, and the like.
The Chinese, for hundreds of years, used to bake porcelain with CHINESE FIRE WELLS.
It is only recently that mineral coal has been substituted for charcoal for this very same purpose in France, and it has been found to be quite economical.
The Chinese knew how to collect the gases which came from coal, and they used them for illuminating.
The accounts of the early missionaries state that from time immemorial the Chinese used to bore into the earth in search of gas, and when they found it they conveyed it in pipes to the places where it was wanted.
Gas was not used.
Historians also say that responsible gambling conference many centuries mines of coal have been worked in the Celestial Empire, but that the worling was in a very barbarous fashion.
Many of their coal mines consist of open cuttings; when they went underground they took but little care to construct drains or support the subterranean ways, and they took no precaution whatever against explosions of fire-damp, which often proved fatal.
In England there are evidences to show that coal was amusing nearby gambling casinos final to the Romans, and possibly to the Britons before the Roman invasion; but it was only worked at the outcrops of the coal seams.
No mention is made of coal until the time of Henry lI.
In 1259 a charter was granted to the Freemen of Newcastle, giving them the liberty "to dig for cole," and a few years later coal was carried to London.
In 1306 Parliament petitioned the king to prevent the importation of coal, and Edward I.
Coal was worked to some extent in the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, and by the beginning of the seventeenth century the English coal mines were in full operation.
In 1615 four thousand English ships were employed in the coal trade.
The coal mines of Belgium were opened about tho 40.
The Belgian coal miners tell a curious story of the discovery of coal, in the twelfth century, at the village of Plenevaux, near Liege.
One of the old chroniclers gives the account as follows: � " Houillos, a farrier, at Plenevaux, was so poor as not to be able to earn enough for his wants, not having sometimes bread enough to give to his wife and children.
One day, being without work, he almost made up his mind to put an end to his life, when an old man, with a white beard, entered his shop.
They entered into conversation.
Houillos told him his troubles; that, being a disciple of St.
Eloi, he worked in iron, blowing the bellows himself to save the expense of an assistant.
He could easily realize some advantages if charcoal was not so dear, as it was that which ruined him.
Houilloa went to the spot pointed out, found the earth as predicted, and having thrown it into the fire, proceeded to forge a horseshoe at one heating.
Transported with joy, he would not keep the precious discovery to himself, but communicated it to his neighbors, and even to his brother farriers.
A grateful posterity has bestowed his name to coal, which is called, in French, Houille.
The miners say it was an angel who showed him the spot where the coal wvas.
Some historians say that learn more here was before -the Revolutionary war, while others say it was since that time.
There is an old story told somewhere of a discovery of coal in IMPRESSIONS OF PLANTS FOUND IN COAL.
DISCOVERY OF ANTHRACITE COAL IN PENNSYLVANIA.
THE QUAKER AND THE YANKEE.
According to the story-teller, -but I cannot vouch fobr his correctness, -the Quaker settler, who was familiar with coal in England, discovered a peculiar stone, which seemed to him almost identical with the substance which he had used in England for fuel.
He found that it became red, and was consumed, but that it would only ignite when there was a very hot fire of wood around it.
The coal with which he had been familiar would burn quite readily, and gave off a thick black smoke; but the substance which he had discovered gave neither smoke nor flame.
He wondered at this, and concluded that the substance which he found was worthless.
One day a traveller, whom the story-teller converts into a Yankee pedler, came along.
As they sat by the evening fire, the Quaker told him of the peculiar region they were in, and of the remarkable stones which he had discovered.
He threw a few fragments upon the fire, and in a little while they became red and were consumed.
The traveller insisted that the substance was valuable; -that it was probably good coal, but the great difficulty was to make it burn.
After gossiping a while about the matter, the traveller went to bed.
During the night he pondered over the matter, and in the morning asked his Quaker friend to take him to the spot where he had found the black stone.
The spot was shown him; he examined the substance carefully.
The Quaker carried to the house a considerable quantity of the substance, and then the Yankee said, � " I think we can make this stuff burn if we can only draw a fire through it.
Now, what we want to do is to fix up something so as to make the fire go where we want it to.
The Yankee said, "Yes.
I know how it can be done; but before I tell you I want to buy half of the land where you found that stone.
A bargain was struck very speedily, and the Yankee hunted around the establishment, and found a piece of sheet iron, which he fashioned into a blower.
He then built up a small, narrow fireplace, and fitted his blower to the front.
The fire was drawn directly among the fragments of coal; in a little while the blower was removed, and the coal was found to be a red, burning mass, which threw off an intense heat.
Both were delighted with the discovery; and thus was opened the first anthracite coal mine in America.
A story was once told to me, on the Pacific coast, concerning the discovery of coal at Bellingham Bay, in British Columbia.
The narrator said that a party of men connected with the Hudson Bay Company's service, was at one time in the camp of a family of Chinook Indians.
The Indians told,them that a few days before, in a locality which they had visited, they had attempted to build a fire.
The wind was blowing, and in order to shield their fire they piled some stones around it.
Among these were two or three large black stones, which they had picked up on the surface.
Great was their astonishment, when the fire was under way, to see these black stones ignite and burn.
They thought it something mysterious, and immediately ascribed it to the work of the devil, just as a great many savage and civilized people are inclined to attribute anything they do not understand to His Satanic Majesty.
Next day they guided the white men to the spot.
It was found that a vein of coal outcropped upon the surface, and gave sure indications of a rich deposit below.
The annual production of coal throughout the entire world ANNUAL COAL PRODUCT.
More than half of this coal is produced in Great Britain.
About twenty millions of tons are mined in North America, and the rest mainly in Belgium, France, and Prussia.
The production of other countries is comparatively insignificant.
Coal is the most valuable mineral substance known.
The amount of coal taken from the earth every year is double the value of all the gold, silver, and diamonds annually produced.
In the great World's Fair of London in 1851, when the famous Kohinoor diamond attracted thousands of curious spectators, there was one day a lump of coal placed near the case containing the Kohinoor.
The lump bore this brief label: " This is the real Kohinoor diamond.
At the present time there is much anxiety in England about the exhaustion in a few hundred years of the coal fields in the British Isles.
The United Kingdom contains nine thousand square miles of coal' fields; France, Belgium, Spain, Prussia, and other German states, together, about two thousand seven hundred square miles of coal fields; other countries, not including America, contain about twenty-nine thousand, while North America, including the British colonies, contains about one hundred and eighty thousand square miles of coal fields.
It will thus be seen that the area of the North American coal fields is four times as great as all those of the other countries of the globe.
Of this immense extent of coal deposits, a very small portion has yet been touched, and consequently for thousands of years to come our country can supply the world.
Coal was formed at a very remote geological period.
Scientific red ghost tuileries gambling den differ as to the exact age of this substance, Their differences are trivial, however, being only a few millions of years; but they all agree that at the time coal was formed there were wide jungles and swamps that covered a large portion of the earth's surface.
The atmosphere was very moist, and probably contained a much larger proportion of 464 HOW COAL WAS FORMED.
This gas is one which especially promotes the growth of plants.
It is, and was, probably unfavorable to the existence of animal life; and it has been suggested that the gradual withdrawal of the carbonic acid by the growth of vegetation of that period slowly purified the atmosphere, and brought it to the condition in which we now find it.
The earth at that time was not fitted fobr the habitation of man.
If man had existed at that period, he would have needed fins in the place of hands and feet, and would have required lungs like those of fishes, instead of those which he now possesses.
There was an abundant population of reptiles and of insects, and there was a liberal supply of fishes.
Many of these fishes, reptiles, and insects are unknown at the present day.
They performed their work, if work they had to do, and disappeared.
Their remains are found in the coal seams and in the rocks which lie above or beneath the coal, and form an interesting subject of study.
Some of the reptiles were enormously large.
Remains have been found of a lizard more than one hundred feet long, with,an open countenance, that could have taken in an ordinary man about as easily as a chicken swallows a fly.
The skeletons of these reptiles are found, and I think that most people who examine these skeletons are inclined to give a sigh of relief when they remember that such creatures are nov extinct.
They would be very disagreeable travelling companions, and one might be very much disinclined to meet them in a narrow lane on a dark night.
Some years ago I examined the skeleton of a reptile discovered in the Mississippi Valley, and though the bones were cold and motionless, I had the wish to keep at a respectful distance from them.
He had a mouth that reminded one of the extension top of a patent carriage; and when his jaw was pushed back, it seemed to me that he could have walked down his own throat without the slightest difficulty.
The most plausible and reasonable theory of the formation of coal seems to be that it is for the most part the remains of vegetable matter which had become decomposed and changed CONVERSION OF PEAT TO COAL.
The fibrous tissues of the aquatic vegetation flourished like a thick carpet on the moist surface.
It became mingled and matted together, as we now find turf and peat in peat bogs, and in swamps and marshes.
On the borders of great lakes, which in time were built up and became swamps, these plains extended, and underwent slow depression.
Layers of sand and other substances were carried down below the level of the sea, which we now find among and alternating with the coal seams in the shape of beds of shales and sandstones.
Then another system of lagoons formed abave them, aind allowed new jungles to spring up and new marshes to be formed.
These were in turn depressed and covered by the waters.
In this way, step by step, the coal beds were built up.
According to geologists, each coal seam represents a depressed swamp, while the intervening strata of sandstone, red ghost tuileries gambling den shale, and clay, mark the various sediments which were brought together by the action of the waters.
The coal beds contain many impressions of plants and portions of plants, so that geologists have been able to determine the nature of the vegetation of that period.
There are a great many mosses and ferns, some of the latter having thick, broad stems, and long and heavy leaves.
One geologist says there alre one hundred and seventy-seven specimens of plants found in single coal beds.
He says there are no palms, nor grasses, nor flowering plants; and for this reason he considers that the coal beds were formed from plants of a marshy growth.
The layers of peat, after being covered by shales, sandstone, and limestone, were compressed beneath the enormous weight of the over-lying strata, and while undergoing this compression, there was a sort of distillation and purifying process going on.
In this way the plants and peat, originally loosely matted together, became more and more compressed, and by means of the heat and pressure were entirely decomposed.
Ultimately the substance was turned into what we now find it, and the coal was stored up for future ages.
The ancients had curious theories in regard to the forma 48 SACRED FIRE WELLS.
They regarded it as streams of bitumen, which had become petrified, or had impregnated certain very porous kinds of rock.
Another theory which they entertained was, that forests had been carbonized on the spot where they grew, or had been transformed by streams of sulphurous acid, which possesses the property of hardening and carbonizing wood.
It is easy to attribute the origin of coal to the agency of rivers of bitumen, and oil of vitriol; but it is not easy to say where those rivers came from.
The Chinese have a theory that coal is a species of plant of which the seed was deposited in the earth ages and ages ago, and that it grew and spread in different parts of the empire where it is now found, in order that the Chinese of today might have a sufficient supply of fuel.
They attribute the streams of inflammable gas, which they collect and utilize, to the breathings of an immense monster below the surface of the earth, and in some localities they call him the first cousin of the God of Flre.
The God of Fire is one of the Chinese deities.
He occupies a prominent place in the temples, and is worshipped with great solemnity.
In other parts of the world these streams of gas are worshipped, and in localities along the coast of the Caspian Sea, streams of burning gas are constantly rising, and their sources are known as sacred wells.
They are visited by thousands of devotees every year, and are regarded with the greatest reverence.
Wells of similar character exist in the United States, but they are mostly of artificial origin.
They are found in the vicinity of Oil Creek, and that region of Western Pennsylvania which has been baptized as Petrolia.
Thousands of American devotees can be found in the vicinity of these wells, and many of them owe their fortunes to the modern God of Https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/ban-gambling-sites-my-laptop.html but it is doubtful if many of them worship the wells with that religious devotion and reverence which are fbund among the fire worshippers of the far east.
THE CAVERNS OF NAPLES.
THE traveller who visits Naples has abundant opportunities for making underground explorations in the neighborhood of that city.
A few of the places he can examine are of natural origin �the Blue Grotto, for- example; but by far the greater part of them are artificial.
A most interesting journey can be made to Pozzuoli and its immediate neighborhood.
With a longing desire to see some of the underground curiosities that have made that part of Italy famous, I arranged a tour in that direction before I had fairly settled myself at the hotel.
We made a party of three, all Amer, icans, and all as impatient and uneasy as our race is said to be when travelling on the continent.
A skirmish with a horde of rapacious coachmen secured us a carriage, and we drove out of Naples by the rbad which skirts the bay in the direction of Rome.
Arriving in the vicinity of the famous places, we were beset by guides, who almost climbed into the carriage ih their eagerness to secure an engagement.
We picked out the cleanest of the lot, or rather the least dirty, and mounted him upon the box by the side of the driver, whlere he sat in all the dignity of an emperor.
He spoke a confused jumble of English, French, and Italian, which was no language in particular, but might be anything in general.
His first move 49 50 GOING TO PoZZUOLI.
We objected to so many, but the guide assured us they would all be needed.
I paid for the torches with a silent resolution to make the fellow eat what were left over; and, as the tallow was bad, and the rags were worse, there was good reason to believe they would not make an agreeable dinner.
Soon after making this purchase, the work of sight-seeing began.
Each place we visited had a man at the entrance, and not one of us could go inside without paying for the privilege.
There were always a half dozen idle fellows hanging about ready to sell cameos and other curiosities which had been dug up in the vicinity, as they solemnly avowed; in reality the cameos were of modern manufacture, and made in Rome or Naples.
The speculators would begin by asking fifty francs for a cameo which was worth about five, and which they would sell for five if they could not get any more.
If we safely ran the gantlet through these avaricious tradesmen,-we were beset by local guides who wanted to lead us, and we generally found it desirable to employ some of them en order to see what the place contained.
In one instance these guides acted as pack-horses, and I can testify that one of them, at least, had all that he wanted to carry; and this is the way it happened.
At the cave of the Cumean Sibyl, where the Emperor Nero and other famous men of the olden time were accustomed to go.
A party of Americans were just emerging as we entered, and one of them intimated that the place laid over anything he had yet seen.
NAPLE WF Click HUMAN PACK MULES.
Down this tunnel we walked until we came to the edge of a black, repulsive pool, over which the light shone very dimly.
There was considerable smoke hangin~g over the water, and altogether the place was about as gloomy as anything I had ever seen.
For all that could be discovered, the pool might be a thousand feet deep, and any number of miles across; to venture upon it might be like venturing upon the Atlantic Ocean, or any other great body of water.
I noticed that the guides had their trousers rolled to the knee, and were barefooted.
They fearlessly entered the water; two of them carried the torches, and three others backed themselves to the edge where there was red ghost tuileries gambling den sort of stepping-stone.
But finally we concluded to try it, and so we mounted our two-legged steeds and rode off.
It happened that I was the heaviest of our party, and it also happened that the man who took me did not weigh as much as I did by at least fifty pounds.
Ele trembled beneath me like a plateful of jelly in the hands of an intoxicated waiter, and I expected every moment he would drop me into the water.
We went out from the shore into the smoky darkness, and in less than a minute we were completely at sea.
Water was beneath and around us, and there was a black sky above that we could almost touch.
No horizon was visible, and altogether we seemed to be in a world about ten feet in diameter, and without sun, moon, or stars.
Our porters splashed along in water about two feet deep, and I thought much more of the liability of my pack animal to stumble than I did of' the Cumean Sibyl and her oracles.
Nero was less in my mind than the garlic-eating Italian- beneath me, and I'was much less interested in the Roman kings than in a certain subject of Victor Emanuel.
Our trio exchanged comments on this novel mode of travelling, and for the time we had very little appreciation of the wonderful history of Rome and her dependencies.
As near as my recollection serves, we had about five minutes of this, sort of travel, when the head of our procession came to a halt before a recess in the wall, which our leader described as the Sibyl's Bath.
It seems that before delivering her oracles, she used to take a bath, on the principle, doubtless, that cleanliness is next to godliness, and the purer her skin the more likely would the gods be to aid her with their inspiration.
The artists represent her as a pretty woman, and of course she was well aware that frequent bathing had a tendency to preserve her good looks.
The couch or bench where she reclined when delivering her oracles was pointed out, and as it then appeared, it was anything but comfortable.
The presence of the water in the cave was explained to be something modern, and not at all in fashion when the Sibyl used to be at home to visitors of wealth and distinction.
She used to keep her floor dry and well swept, and probably she had a little sideboard with a cold ham or two and a b6ttle of wine.
Nero was a fiequent caller, both in fashionable and unfashionable hours, and used to send hler valuable presents.
Nero was jealous, but the old gentleman was in a position to do pretty much as he liked, and didn't mind her scolding.
One of my companions showed me a scrap of paper, which he said he found just inside- the entrance to the cave, while I was paying off the guides.
It ran as follows: May 10, 4 P.
DEAREST SIB: Expect me at eight.
The old lady is going out this evening, and won't miss me.
Have the tea ready, and send out for a bottle of Cliquot.
I will bring a mince pie and some Limburger cheese; also a new pair of ear-rings and a chignon.
I called mly friend's attention to these slight discrepancies, and he at once put the paper in his pocket, and said nothing more about it.
After looking at the couch of the Sibyl we started back to our landing-place.
Just as we neared it we met another party going in.
One of the porters of the new party was evidently weak in the knees, for lie stumbled just as he passed me, and went down like a handful of mud.
The gentleman he carried was dropped into the water, and fell flat, as though intending to take a swim.
Iie slowly rose to his feet, and after blowing the water from his mouth with a noise like the spouting of a whale, he ventured several remarks that were nowise complimentary to his porter or to the place.
He appeared somewhat excited.
His language showed him to be English, but there was nothing in it to indicate that he was a member in good and regular standing of the Church of England.
He did not finish his journey to the bath and couch of the Click to see more, but fbllowed us to the shore, where he wrung himself out, and then retired to his carriage to be hung up to dry.
With a heartlessness peculiar to many travellers, he refused to pay the porter for his services.
It is fortunate that the latter did not understand English, as he would have been offended at the remarks which were made about him.
From the Sibyl's Cave we went to the farnous Lake of Avernus, which was described by Virgil long before anybody who reads this book was familiar with a singlre word of Latin.
Near the lake is the famous passage into the mountain about which Virgil wrote: � "Facilis descensus Averni.
Sed revocare gradum, hie opus, hic labor est.
We laid aside our coats and vests, removed our collars, heck-ties, and hats, and altogether put ourselves in a condition quite improper in polite society.
A boy stood ready to precede us in a costume consisting of a pair 56 FACILIS DESCENSUS AVERNI.
A fresh egg was now shown us, and we examined it to see that it was quite cold and raw.
The boy then took the egg and a torch, and went into a tunnel like the one at the Sibyl's Cave.
A blast of hot air met us at the entrance, as though it came from a furnace, and I thought of Nebuchadnezzar and the treat that he used to have for his visitors.
On and on we went, and also down and down.
Old Virgil iwas right when he said that the descent was easy, for we went down with the grace of so many oysters entering the mouth of a champagne bottle.
Hotter and hotter grew the air, and before we were half way down I remembered some business that I had neglected when I left America.
I wanted to go back to look after it, but my friends argued that it would keep a little longer, and I had better go on.
So we continued down already legal gambling sites south africa phrase the bowels of the mountain, over a slippery pathway and in a temperature as agreeable as that of the stoker's room on a steamship.
We reached the end at last, and the boy stooped to the edge of a pool of water and placed the egg within it.
We could see a thin vapor rising from the surface, and readily imagined that it was steam.
The boy was careful of his hands, more careful than was necessary, since he might have added to the interest of the occasion by scalding them, and then hiring another boy to take his place.
There were plenty of boys outside who could be hired cheap, and if a dozen were killed daily by scalding, or rendered helpless, it would have made no serious diminution of the Italian population.
We stood there a couple of minutes, and then the boy took the tin pail and scooped up the egg and a quart or two of water.
It was a difficult ascent to make, and we acknowledged that Virgil's head was level when he told about the labor required to retrace one's steps from Avernis.
We perspired like a man who has just learned that he is the father of triplets, and by the time we completed the journey, our clothing was pretty thoroughly saturated.
The boy was accustomed to it, as the old lady's eels were to being skinned, NERO'S PRISON.
The egg was thoroughly cooked, and the water in the pail was of a scalding temperature, altogether too hot to put one's hand into.
The egg cost us half a franc, and so did the boy: one of us ate the egg with a little salt, but we declined to eat the boy with or without salt, and he did not urge us.
The guide told us that one day an Englishman went down the " descensus Averni," and on arriving at the hot water, he stepped around so carelessly that he slipped and fell in.
His cries and shrieks rang through the tunnel; he was pulled outas quickly as possible, but he was so badly scalded that he died in a few hours.
Several accidents have happened there by persons scalding their hands and feet, but the character of the place is such, that people are likely to be careful; otherwise there would be frequent casualties to record.
We visited the ruins of temples that were erected to I don't know how many deities, and the next subterranean explo.
We left our carriage and went on foot up a narrow lane, and along a path where beggars followed and beset us at every turn; notwithstanding their importunity, they did not extract any money from us, though they appeared in all the conditions in which beggars could possibly present themselves.
Nero must have been a charming personage if one could judge of him by looking at the placewhere he used to shut up those who offended him.
It was a subterranean affair, and we were obliged to light our torches to explore it.
We were led through winding passages into cells that were anything but comfortable, the guide stopping every moment to explain to us the nature of each one of the cells, and the uses to which they were put.
They were small enough to render it utterly improbable that a man would exert his legs very actively in running, after he was once shut in, and as law order svu gambling light and ventilation, they were quite in keep.
I continue reading about the character of the food which Nero used 4 58 CHOICE FURNITURE.
Nero had no table d'hote, but used to send the meals to the rooms of his guests.
None of them are alive now, and their early death is to be attributed in many cases to the treatment they received.
At the time they resided there, oysters had not been invented, and there is nothing on record to show that the delicious conglomerate which we call hash had made its appearance.
Some of the patrons used to express a desire to live on the European plan, and take their meals outside; but the proprietor would never permit it.
And it must be said, to his credit, that hlis establishment was to a certain extent a free lunch concern, as he never charged anything for board and lodging.
Everything was gratis, and of'course the patrons who complained must have been mean fellows, who couldn't be satisfied, no matter what you might click at this page for them.
The furniture of the place was very simple.
It had been mostly removed when we were there, but it consisted originally of a bundle of straw on the ground and a double lock on the door.
There used to be a gymnasium, where they kept a choice lot of racks, thumb-screws, and other luxurious arrangements.
Some of them he would play a joke upon by tying them down on a rack and then winding up the machine so that a man of five feet eight would often be converted into six feet two.
When he had been played with in this way, they would turn him loose, though releasing him did no good, as he was generally dead before they let him off.
Procrustes, which was intended to equalize all men, and make them of a uniform height.
This invention, based on the principles of mechanical communism, was a bedstead of iron, and there were various individuals who enjoyed the treat of being placed upon it.
A poet has alluded to it as follows: It NERO'S GYMNAZIE'M.
If we're too short we must be stretched, Cut off if we're too long.
If he was short, both in money and in stature, they elongated him until he could touch headboard and fobotboard at the same time; and if' he was a tall fellow, they shortened him at the feet with a large pair of shears that were kept for the purpose.
When a hundred men had been measured on this bed and placed in a row, they were found to be of the same elevation.
A good many of them died soon afterwards, but people were numerous in those days, and the dead ones were not missed by those who didn't know anything about them.
Down in the kitchen, Nero had a gridiron resembling a garden gate, or a section of an iron fence.
He had so many cooks that all of red ghost tuileries gambling den could not be constantly employed, and so he busied unlawful internet gambling enforcement act text to devise ways to employ them.
He fobund that the gridiron gambling device act of 1962 just the thing, and when his cooks were idle he used to take one of his lodgers down stairs and promise him a good roast.
The lodger would be thinking of; a nice turkey or a leg of' mutton when Nero said " roast " to him, and as the private table was not very good, he was always ready to go below.
When they got down stairs Nero would tip the wink to the cooks, who would seize the lodger and tie him on the gridiron.
They then built a fire under him, and Nero carried on the joke by standing alongside with a big- ladle and pouring hot oil over his guest.
When he was done brown, and turned over and done on the other side, they would let him off to enjoy the fun of seeing the sell playedj on the next man.
No doubt he would have enjoyed it had he, not been dead long before they got through with him.
When we returned to Naples, we wvent by another route, than the one we had taken in the morning.
At one place our' way led through a tunnel cut into the solid earth, and said to, 62 THE TOMB OF VIRGIL.
It has worn down greatly since it was first opened; the marks of the axles of carts and wagons are visible along its sides ten or twelve feet above the present floor.
It is lighted by torches placed at regular intervals along the walls, and is an important thoroughfare for people going between Naples and certain villages and towns to the north of it.
At the end nearest to Naples we were taken to what is supposed to be the Tomb of Virgil, though its authenticity is considerably in doubt.
It- certainly is not much of a tomb, and many a man not half so talented or famous as Virgil has been lodged after death in far more beauful https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/problem-gambling-meaning.html than these.
The peculiar nature of the earth composing the hills around Naples has greatly facilitated the construction of tunnels and caves.
It is almost identical with that of the bluffs of Vicksburg - easy to cut, and at the same time sufficiently firm to prevent falling in.
No roofing or arching of any kind is needed, and the tools ordinarily used in excavations are all that are required.
Consequently every man who has a hill on his farm can construct a spacious wine cellar at little expense; and if he has a friendly legal gambling in texas over the hill, they can easily cut their way through, and save the trouble of climbing when they want to visit each other.
I heard of Neapolitan thieves who sometimes find out a wellstored wine cellar in the side of a small hill, and carefully ob.
Then they erect a small house on the other side, and begin a small tunnel.
They cart the dirt away at night, and after a month or so enter the cellar and steal enough wine to pay them handsomely for their trouble.
HELLGATE AND SANDY HOOK.
FROM the Atlantic Ocean there are two entrances into the harbor of New York; one by way of' Sandy Hook, and the other through Long Island Sound and the East River.
For a steamer coming from Liverpool, the nearest entrance is through Long Island Sound.
The Sandy Hook entrance is obstructed by sand bars; the channel is tortuous, and accidents are not uncommon.
The entrance to Long Island Sound is broad and easy, but between the Sound and the East River there is a very dangerous passage, which extends, however, less than a mile.
This dangerous passage is popularly known as Hellgate; the early Dutch navigators gave the place its name.
Tradition says that a Dutch skipper, named Adrian Blok, called it the Hellegat Riviere, after a small stream in Flanders, the place of his nativity.
There is nothing sulphurous in the name, Hellegat, which is said, by one writer, to mean " Beautiful Pass;" somehow, the transposition of the word into Hellgate, has given it an infernal aspect.
The early historians of Manhattan and its vicinity described the iHellegat as a very dangerous place; one of the earliest writers speaks of it as follows: " which being a narrow passage, there runneth a violent stream both upon flood 63 64 JOKES ABOUT HELLGATE.
But as the tide rises it begins to fret; at half tide it roars with might and main, like a bull bellowing for more drink; but when the tide is full it relapses into quiet, and for a time sleeps as soundly as an alderman after dinner.
In fact, it may be compared to a quarrelsome toper, who is a peaceable fellow enough when he has no liquor at all, or when he has a skinful, but who, when half-seas over, plays the very devil.
The removal of the rocks that lie in this passage between East River and Long Island Sound has been a subject of great anxiety witli merchants of New York, and it seems a little strange that from the time of the settlement of New York until less than thirty years ago, very little had been done towards this work.
The first survey was made under the supervision of Lieutenant now Rear Admiral Charles H.
Davis, towards the close of 1847.
He made his report in February of the following year, giving a careful description of the rocks and currents of Hellgate, and suggesting a plan fbr the removal of the most serious obstructions.
Nothing was done until the following year, when a new survey Nwas made.
A map was published, and in March, 1851, steps were taken to remove certain small but dangerous rocks by the process of blasting.
The engineer in charge of this work was a Frenchman named Maillefert; he proposed to -remove the rocks by exploding charges of powder against them.
The plan dispensed altogether with the slow and difficult process of drilling; he exploded his powder directly upon the rock, on the theory that the pressure of the water above the gas formed by the burning powder, would offer sufficient resistance to throw considerable force against the rock.
His first blast was made on Pot Rock, and removed about four feet from its highest point.
The plan was successful as long as the rocks were in a state of projection; but after these projections had been removed, and the explosions were made against a solid flat surface, they failed almost completely.
After this French engineer ended his operations, new surveys were made, and it was found that the channel, though greatly improved, was far from complete or satisfactory.
Other surveys followed, and various plans were proposed; but the breaking out of the war for a time put a stop to the labors.
In 1866 Brevet Major General Newton was sent by the War Department to examine the obstructions of Hellgate, and to arrange for their removal.
In the following year he made his report, giving estimates of the time and money required to make a safe and easy passage-way for ships of all sizes: he proposed to remove, by blasting, the obstructions known as Pot Rock, Frying Pan, Way's Reef, Shell Drake, Heeltap Rock, Negro Point, Scaly Rock, IIallett's Point, and certain other rocks of smaller size.
He estimated that the channel could be made an average 68 DANGERS OF HALLETT'S POINT.
Another plan included the removal of these rocks and four others in ten years' time, at a cost of nine millions of dollars; and he presented another plan, by which some of the middle rocks should remain as they were; and the most serious obstruction, known as Hallett's Point, could be removed in three years, at a cost of three millions.
Hallett's Point is the most dangerous obstruction in Hellgate.
From shore to shore the distance is about six hundred feet; the https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/responsible-gambling-advisor.html extends more than three hundred feet from one shore, so that the actual width of the channel is reduced to three hundred feet.
The water boils furiously over this reef; and turns a large part of the tide upon the Gridiron Rock, frequently throwing ships upon it.
The process of drilling and blasting was considered too slow and ineffectual, and it was proposed to remove the rock by sinking a shaft upon the shore, undermininjg the entire reef; red ghost tuileries gambling den pillars to support the rock until the work of undermining was all completed, when, by a single explosion, these pillars could be blown away, the whole reef would fall, and the dangerous obstructions to the commerce of New York would be removed.
One pleasant day, in 1871, I was one of a party to visit the scene of General Newton's operations.
Our party embarked on a small steamer at the Barge Office,'and proceeded up the East River, stopping on the way to examine the operations in progress fbr the removal of what is known as Coenties' Reef.
This reef is about six hundred feet from Pier No.
Attempts have been made at various times to remove this reef, but none of them were successful until the plan of General Newton was tried.
The reef is about 250 feet long, and is 130 feet wide in click to see more broad DRILLING UNDER WATER.
We found a large scow anchored above the reef, and were politely taken on board.
The scow is very broad and heavy, and is firmly anchored, so that ships or steamers that run against click to see more can be very little damaged.
In two or three instances, vessels that have come in collision with the scow have retired considerably damaged, while the large and unwieldy craft remains unharmed.
As we went on board we were taken to the centre of the scow, where there was a circular well about thirty feet across; and in this well there was a dome, which could be raised and lowered by means of machinery.
At the top of the dome there was a " telescope," twelve feet in diameter, that could be extended or shortened in order to accommodate itself to the condition of the tide.
The plan of working was to anchor the scow over the place where the rock was to be drilled, and then to lower the dome until it touched the rock.
As soon as one part of it struck the rock, rods were pushed out from the side of the dome to rest upon the reef, and perform the work of feet: they readily adapted themselves to the inequalities of the rock, and as soon as they were fastened in their place the dome was almost immovable.
Inside the dome there were places for lowering drills, and working them, by means of machinery.
The drilling enginewere run by steam, and the drills, nine in number, were operated simultaneously; the nine holes that they made were in a circle of about twenty feet in diameter.
The drill penetrated the rock from six inches to two feet an hour, according to its hardness.
When a round of holes was made, the scow was hauled off, the holes were filled with charges of nitro-glycerine in tin cans, and everything wals made ready for a blast.
The work of blasting has to be done very rapidly, for the reason that a diver can only go down to arrange the charges at the period of slack water.
Everything is made ready at the turn of the tide, and the very instant that the tide falls the holes are charged.
We were not in.
When the round of holes has been charged, thle diver goes down.
The pump to supply him with air is kept at work; the charges are lowered into the water one after the other, and placed in the holes where they belong.
When he has ar.
The boats then back away from the reef sufficiently far to be out of the way of the explosion.
The nine charges are fired simultaneously by means of electricity.
The double wire, insulated with gutta-percha, extends into a small cartridge of powder, which is placed in the top of each charge of nitro-glycerine.
The ends of' the wire are brought quite near each other, and between them a small slip of platinum is soldered.
The current of electricity, passing through the wires, heats this platinum to redness, and sets fire to the powder around it.
The powder explodes, and its explosion sets fire to the nitro-glycerine.
As the battery which furnishes the electricity is on board the boat, the current is thrown into each pail of wires simultaneously and thus the explosions occur at exactly the same moment.
A column of water shoots up into the air, the rock is torn and broken, and there is a general disturbance of the water all round it: ships and boats are warned, by means of a red flag, to keep at a safe distance.
It generally happens that a good many fishes that have been swimming around the rock at the time of the explosion are killed, and rise to the surface; those that are not killed are very much astonished, and swim away with great rapidity.
The experience of a diver going down to arrange the charges is not highly agreeable.
If he remains longer than the period of slack water, he finds the current so strong that it almost carries him off his feet; and it frequently becomes necessary for him to be drawn to the surface and abandon his work until the next turn of the tide.
Should an explosion occur while he is below, it would be pretty certain to cause his death.
They say that accidents which have occurred from the use of nitro-glycerine have been caused by careless or ignorant handling, and that many accidents to which powder is liable will not occur with nitro-glycerine.
General Newton explained to us that a few days before our visit a slight accident occurred, which would hlave proved fatal had they been using powder.
At that time they were using fulminating caps instead of electricity; one.
Had they been using gunpowder instead, the consequences would have been fatal.
In all the blasting operations in New York harbor at the present time, and in many other places, nitro-glycerine takes the place of powder; it is much more powerful in its effect, a single charge of it breaking and shattering a rock much more than gunpowder.
It has the advantage, too, of' extending its fbrce completely to the bottom of the hole, whereas gunpowder very frequently acts only part way down the hole.
My individual experience of nitro-glycerine has not been of the most pleasing character.
In 1866 I1 sailed from New York for San Francisco by way of Panama; when we reached Aspinwall we crossed the Isthmus to take the Pacific steamer at Panama.
It was nearly sunset when we climbed up the gangway, and stood upon her deck; an hour later, the tug with our baggage, and with the express freight and mails, came out.
I was standing near the gangway when the baggage and express matter came on board, and I think, though I will not vegas gambling tips positive about it, - and some of my acquaintances say it is very unlikely, - that I assisted in taking a few of the boxes over the rail.
Everything was stowed away, and about ten o'clock at night we steamed down the Bay of Panama, and were on our way to San Francisco.
We reached the latter city in safety on a Saturday morning, and I was intro 72 A HORRIBLE ACCIDENT.
Two or three days later, I was walking'up Montgomery Street, and met a friend on his way to lunch at a well-known Club House: I would have accepted his invitation to lunch, only it happened that I had just breakfasted; and, bidding him good morning, or good afternoon, I walked slowly towards the Occidental Hotel.
I had been there but a very few minutes before I heard a loud report, which jarred the whole building, and set people flying through all the corridors to ascertain what was the matter.
I went out, and walked up the street the way I had come.
It turned out that the explosion which had jarred all that part of the city, was in the office of the Express Company.
To tell the story briefly, seventeen persons were killed, among them some of my personal friends, and as many more had been wounded.
The Club House, where I was very near taking my lunch, had been blown up, and several persons who were sitting at the lunch-table were among the injured.
Among the boxes which had been on the steamer with me from New York to San Francisco, had been passed over the rail of the steamer at Panama, and which I had assisted in handling, there were two cases of nitro-glycerine.
One of these cases had exploded at the express office, its contents not being known, and consequently it had not been carefully handled, and in exploding it had set fire to the other.
The force was sufficiently strong to cause a marvellous deal of damage, in and around the express company's building, to casino gambling age hundreds, if not thousands, of panes of glass, some of them three or four hundred yards away; and all agreed that if those cases had blown up on our steamer we never would have been heard of afterwards.
Why, the steamer would have gone, one half to the AT HALLETT'S POINT.
Since that time I have had https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/size-of-gambling-industry.html wholesome fear of nitro.
It may be a very good thing in its way, it may be entirely safe if properly handled, but I greatly prefer that it should not be in my way, and that somebody else should handle it.
From Coenties' Reef we went to Hallett's Point, and were landed under the supervision of the general in charge.
We were delivered over to the hands of the superintendent, Mr.
source, who entertained us very pleasantly, and showed great politeness to the ladies and gentlemen of' the party, especially to the ladies.
IHe explained all about the works, and opened a mysterious case.
In a very short time our heads were full of tunnels, drifts, headings, drills, champagne, nitroglycerine, reefs, derricks, pale sherry, and all that sort of thing.
He showed us his plans and specifications, and then induced us to step into a wooden box slung at the end of a derrick, and be lowered away into a pit of fifty or sixty feet in depth.
This pit formed a shaft which had been sunk https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/seneca-falls-casino-gambling-age.html shore to begin the operations upon the reef.
From the shaft a series of tunnels extended very much like one's outstretched fingers.
Between the tunnels there were smaller tunnels, running from one to the other, leaving pillars to support the rock and the wate'r above.
A strong dam had been built around the mouth of the pit to prevent the water from flooding it.
The tunnels or headings, as they are technically called, have been designated by names instead of numbers.
Most of the men working there -are Cornish miners, and they are not fond of numerical designations.
The superintendent originally called the central heading Number One, but it is now known as Farragut Heading.
The others in order after it are Madison, Hum 74 UNDER HELLGATE.
At the centre of the reef, the heading which is the highest is known as Grant Heading.
Nine feet of' rock is left to fobrm a roof.
The rock is not very hard, but it is full of seams and fissures, through which the water is constantly dripping.
The narrow seams are closed by blocking, and when a wide seam is struck, it has to be closed outside.
In one case the miners came upon a horizontal seam, through which the water poured at the rate of six hundred gallons a minute, and before the flow could be stopped, the miners were standing in three or four feet of water.
Bags of clay are kept in readiness on the edge of the coffer dam, over each heading, so that, whenever a seam is found, it can be closed as quickly as possible.
After we were lowered into the pit, we dodged the streams of water as well as we could, and went inside.
The walking was not of the best, as the bottom of the tunnel was full of water, and rough fragments of rock were lying everywhere.
Men were at work in the headings, drilling holes in the rock, and preparing them for a blast.
They had penetrated to a distance of nearly one hundred and fifty feet from the entrance, and were obliged to work by the light of candles.
Three or four of them were working in each heading.
They were operating the drills by hand, but it was proposed to introdnuce drills operated by means of compressed air.
Work in those headings was not highly pleasant, as the -water was constantly dripping in; and nearly every one engaged there was as thoroughly drenched as he would have been if some one had thrown him into the river.
The miners are generally wet through when their day's work is ended, and their labor cannot be considered very healthful.
Of course almost our first inquiry was in regard to accidents.
We were told that very few had occurred.
It is a rule of the superintendent, when a blast fails, for some reason, to go off, the charge in the hole shall not be disturbed; but a new hole shall be bored alongside the old one.
The floor of the mine is in most places about thirty feet below low-water mark.
The roof of rock overhead is nine feet in thickness, which would leave only twenty-one feet of water after the reef has fallen.
It is the intention, when the headings have been driven far enough, to sink the floor eight or nine feet below its present level, so that when the explosion takes place, there will be nearly thirty feet of water above the fallen mass of rock.
The water that comes through the seams is removed by means of steam-pumps, and sometimes the pumps are required to swork very rapidly.
A very delicate piece of work, in connection with this mining operation,is that performed by the engineers and surveyors.
It is necessary to know the exact condition of the surface of the rock above each heading, in order that the miners can push their work in safety.
Careful soundings are made over every foot of the surface of the reef.
The exact bearings of every sounding are taken.
A tube is lowered down to the rock, and an iron rod is placed inside of this tube.
By means of this rod the nature of the rock below is determined.
Blows are struck with the rod, and from the sound of the blows a surveyor can understand whether the rock on which the tube rests is a detached piece or belongs to the entire reef.
Over fifteen thousand of these soundings have been made.
All the nitro-glycerine used for the explosion, is made on the premises, and only so much is made as is required from day to day.
The laboratory, as they call the place where this explosive material is manufactured, is an old boat-house, a little distance from the main works.
It contains a bench covered with dry plaster of Paris to absorb any drippings of nitroglycerine, a refrigerating chest, and cans in which the materials.
No one is allowed to handle the material unless perfectly conversant with its use, and every precaution is taken to prevent accidents.
One of these days the people of New York can be treated to an exhibition similar to that which was given some time 78 A COMING EXPLOSION.
There will be a grand explosion at Hallett's Point.
When the whole reef has been undermined, and the floor of the mine has been lowered to a sufficient depth, the pillars that support the roof will be honey-combed with holes to receive charges of nitro-glycerine, and cans of the explosive material will be scattered about in the different headings.
The electric wires will run from the battery at a safe distance, and at a given signal the connection will be made.
The waters of Hellgate will be thrown high in the air, and that reef which has stood so long an obstruction to navigation, and a detriment to the commerce of the greatest city of the United States, will disappear.
The waters of Hellgate will cease their bubbling and boiling over that dangerous rock, and the great ships and steamers on their way from Europe will enter the harbor, avoiding the shoals of Sandy Hook, and making their way through Long Island Sound and the East River to a safe and convenient anchorage.
IIOW COAL MINES ARE DISCOVERED.
UNTIL the beginning of the present century coal mines were discovered more by accident than in any other way.
The coal seams make their appearance at the surface, that is.
Coal on the surface is generally of a poor character, for the reason that it has claim casino gambling losses on taxes for many hundreds of years subject to the action of the elements; but on digging down a few feet, or a few dozen feet, the quality is found to be greatly improved.
When coal is thus found at the surface, a preliminary examination is conducted by cutting trenches, galleries, and pits, and if the conditions are favorable, the actual working of the mine can begin.
Sometimes the mine is operated by a few cuttings: like the works of an ordinary stone quarry.
Most coal mines have been discovered and opened in this way; but when the coal is concealed beneath the soil, and nothing is observed on the surface; it is discovered by chance, or by geological indications.
At the present day many coal mines are discovered by means of railway cuttings, or in sinking wells.
Other mines are discovered in this way.
Some twenty years ago, while a railway was constructing in Vermont, the workmen came upon a bed of marble, and it'was found to be quite extensive.
Speculators bought the land in 79 80 DISCOVERING COAL MrINES.
In1813 a well was sunk atLa Sarthe, in France.
Amongst the rubbish a black earth was noticed, which was sent to a provincial debating society at Le Mans.
An extraordinary meeting of the society was called, and somebody suggested that this black earth might be coal.
It was immediately tried in the stove in the room where the meeting was held, and it was fobund that the earth burned readily.
Careful examinations were made, and valuable coal mines were opened in the vicinity.
Some of the mines in the United States have been discovered in places where burrowing animals had thrown up the earth.
Decomposed coal retains its original blackness; in several instances where it was found in the earth thus thrown up, careful observations were made, and work was immediately begun in search of coal.
Some valuable mines have been opened in this way.
In the year 1716 a very skilful coal miner in Belgium made a series of explorations, and discovered very valuable mines.
Under his direction they were explored fbor several years, but the works were at length abandoned, in consequence of the accumulation of water.
In all parts of the world miners have always found great difficuity irin proceeding in consequence of the interruptions caused by water, alld until the steam engine was invented there was an absence of sufficient pouwer for its removal.
In the eighteenth century deep pits in the Newcastle coal fields were filled with water, and it was - necessary to drain these pits before the coal could be taken out.
The ordinary pump was not sufficient for the purpose, and a more powerful engine became necessary.
Inventions seem:to come at a time when they are most needed, When the necessity for a powerfui- pump was greatest, the steam engine was invented.
Savory, Newcomen,: and Watt succeeded each other.
Captain ENTRANCE TO A COAL MINE.
INTFERIOR OF A COAL MINE.
INVENTING THE STEAM ENGINE.
Newcomen invented the atmospheric steam engine, ill which the piston was lifted by steam, and when this was condensedthe piston was forced to the bottom of the cylinder by the pressure of the atmosphere.
Afterwards Watt improved upon the engine, and overcame the difficulty of removing the vast accumulations of water in the deep mines, about the middle of the eighteenth century.
There is a curious relation between coal mines and the steam engine.
The latter was invented among the former, and without its application to pumping purposes the invention would have been to a great extent worthless, for by means of the very substance raised from the mines the engine is kept in motion.
The mines thus furnished the material with which the engine is operated, and only with the aid of the engine can the coal mines be properly worked.
In the petroleum regions of America the borings and pumpings are frequently conducted by means of the gas which rises from the earth.
Very often a steam engine is run without any other fuel than a stream of natural gas, conveyed beneath the boiler, and fed through a proper distributing apparatus.
To the coal mine we are also indebted for that great boon of modern civilization, the railway.
Coal is a heavy, bulky article, selling at a low price.
Not only must it be removed from the earth, but it must be carried at a cheap rate, and often for long distances.
Where there is no water communication the roads are the only mode of conveyance.
Originally common earth roads were used, and the coal was carried in ordinary carts.
These roads were improved, and, after a time, were in the condition of stone causeways, or macadamized tracks.
Afterwards wooden tracks were used, over which the wheels would roll more easily than upon ordinary roads.
These wooden tracks were at first placed in the underground ways of the mines, and afterwards extended to the ways above ground.
But wood is not durable; it soon rots and wears away.
The wooden tracks were subsequently replaced by others of cast iron; originally these were grooved, but subsequently they were furnished with a lateral flange.
Afterwards wrought iron was substituted for cast iron.
In the first instance strips of cast iron were placed upon wooden rails, forming the oldfashioned strap rail.
Afterwards was invented the ordinary rail as we now find it.
The flange was removed from the rail, and placed upon the wheel, and thus, step by step, the modern railway came into existence.
Something more was wanted.
Cars were propelled by means of horse or man power.
It was necessary to apply the steam engine to the work of transportation.
Trefethick, a Cornish miner, constructed a locomotive with a simple boiler, like that of a stationary engine; but the heating surface and the motive power were too small.
It was not then supposed that the wheels would turn upon a smooth rail and move forward, and so the driving wheel was toothed and worked in a rack.
The speed was you gambling taxes by country income speak than that of a carriage drawn by horses.
George Stephenson, an old coal miner, completed-the locomotive.
Seguin, in France, about the same time, invented the tubes which run through the locomotive boiler, and afford a passage to the flames.
They greatly increased the evaporating surface, and consequently the production of steam.
Stephenson discharged into the chimney the steam which had acted upon the piston, and thus gave a great draft to the furnaces.
The locomotive was then complete, and since that day it has only been improved in its details.
We have wandered a little from the search for coal to speak of the steam engine, the locomotive, and the railway.
Many coal -mines have been discovered by borings in search of artesian springs.
About thirty years ago, in one of the French provinces, a well was being bored, and, quite unexpectedly, the boring tools revealed the presence of coal.
As soon as this became known, everybody went to work searching, not for water, but for coal.
In a region sixty miles long BORING FOR COAL.
Everywhere coal was found, and altogether one hundred thousand acres of coal fields were added to the wealth of France.
Nearly thirty companies-were organized to work the new mines.
Since the discovery about fifty pits have been suiik, some of them to a depth of five hundred yards.
In 1851 the mines produced five thousand tons of coal.
At the present day their product is not'far from twenty millions of tons.
All this originated in a search for water.
The process of boring for read article is very much like, in fact almost identical with, boring for petroleum.
The boring rods are of wood, or iron, and are screwed together as the work proceeds.
The primitive instrument is a steel chisel, or bit, which strikes the rock and wears it away, precisely as an ordinary drill makes a hole in a stone ledge.
Boring machinery may be operated by steam power or by hand.
In the primitive way, a triangle, or pair of shears, supports the rods, and has an ordinary windlass, by which they may be raised or lowered.
One of the inconveniences attending the ordinary process of' boring is, that the rock is pulverized, and nothing but little fragments of dust and mud are brought to the surface.
Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether the stones through which the borer has passed are the proper ones to indicate the existence of coal, or whether the black matter comes from coal or shales.
All these disadvantages have been overcome by means of a new instrument, which is in general use.
A gouge in the form of a hollow cylinder is employed, furnished at the base with a row of teeth, or with several cutting blades of cast steel, and sometimes with a row of diamonds.
It is worked like an ordinary borer or auger, and cuts a solid column or cylinder out of the rock as regular in shape as if it had been turned in a lathe.
When this cylinder has been cut to a sufficient length, it is "DAD'S STRUCK ILE.
The boring tool will cut a hole eight inches in diameter, leaving a pillar of rock in the centre which can be broken off at any desired length and brought to daylight.
By means of this rock, the fossils in the stone may be studied, together with the structure of the strata, and all its peculiarities.
Beautiful specimens of rock are frequently obtained in this way from great depths.
Some borings have been made to a depth of nearly two thousand feet, with a diameter varying from eight to twenty inches.
As the boring tool reaches the depth at which the workmen expect to find coal, the operations are conducted with the greatest interest.
Every motion of the rod is carefully watched, and when the fragments of rock or earth are brought to the surface, they are examined with great care.
When the coal is discovered there is much rejoicing, as it is then certain that the prize has been gained.
It is the same in boring for coal as for oil.
When a man in Western Pennsylvania has "struck oil," and, according to the local expression, " struck it rich," he feels that his fortune is made.
More than one man has thus raised himself above his fellows when his search for coal was rewarded with success.
An old story, which has been told many times, and will bear telling a good many times more, is not inapplicable here.
During the period of the first oil excitement in Pennsyl.
The maiden received his addresses, and the pair were engaged to be married.
The father of the damsel was an oil seeker, and one day his search for oil was successful.
That evening the young man visited his lady love.
She received him coldly.
He asked the meaning of the coolness, and she curtly replied, "I can't marry you.
As the story goes, the damsel, who had been thus suddenly lifted from poverty to wealth in consequence of her father's oil discovery, remained unmarried for several months, but finally gave her hand to an engaging stranger from New York, who dissipated the family fortune as rapidly as it had been obtained.
In 1853 some wealthy gentlemen sought for coal near Creuzot, in France.
The spot was carefully selected, and for four years the work went on.
The tools penetrated to a depth of more than three thousand feet.
This is probably one of' the deepest borings ever made.
An unforeseen accident stopped the work at that point.
The bore-hole was less than an inch in diameter, and was made by means of a steel chisel fastened into wooden rods, which were screwed together.
The boring tool one day became broken at the bottom of the hole.
All kinds of grappling implements were lowered to tak6 hold of it, but none of them succeeded.
The chisel seemed to be firmly lodged at the bottom, and resisted every attempt to withdraw it.
After six months of effort the work was abandoned.
One of the parties interested offered to subscribe half a million francs to be given to any one who would invent an instrument that could withdraw the chisel.
Several days after the abandonment of the enterprise, the foreman of the work mounted the staging and made another effort to raise the broken tool.
The whole power of the steam engine was exerted in pulling the ends of the rods, when suddenly the rope gave way.
The man's hand was caught and crushed between the rod and one of the planks through which it-passed.
He stood there and shouted to the man to saw off the rod in order to release him.
Then holding the remains of- the ruined hand in the uninjured one, he walked to Creuzot, three miles away, and without uttering a word of complaint, underwent amputation at the wrist.
After the coal is discovered, whether through surface indications or by borings, the preliminary working begins by 88 TUBBING A SHAFT.
Generally the first step is to sink a shaft or pit.
When the ground is soft, the pit must be walled with brick, stone, or timber, as fast as the descent is made.
When the pit is sunk through limestone and sandstone, the progress is slow, but the walls sustain themselves, and do not require either masonry or timbering.
A great inconvenience in sinking a shaft arises from springs and small streams of water.
In many places where this inconvenience occurs, the shaft is fitted with a wooden lining, or tubbing, as it is called, which is made of thick staves somewhat resembling those of casks, the joints being carefully fitted, in order to keep out all water, and to withstand great pressure.
Sometimes this tubbing is made of iron, wrought or cast.
Where the ground is loose, or composed of sand and water, the tubbing is forced down from the top, or sinks by its own weight.
When this tubbing consists of masonry, it is built in a circle at the surface, and as fast as the earth is removed the masonry sinks.
A fresh circle is added at the surface, and thus the work goes on.
It was in this way that Brunel constructed the shafts which formed the descent into the Thames Tunnel.
Sometimes shafts are sunk under water, and in such case they are lowered in a perpendicular position until the ends strike the bottom, and then the water is pumped out.
An ingenious apparatus raises the mud from the bottom, and a pump is kept at work to remove the water.
Sometimes, in sinking a shaft through quicksand, the water runs in faster than any ordinary mode of drainage will remove it.
Triger, an ingenious Frenchman, invented a machine by which the water could be pumped out.
The cylinders of iron were five or six feet in diameter, and he divided them into three compartments, as nearly air-tight as possible.
He forced compressed air into the lower one, and enclosed the workman inside.
The man was thus in a sort of diving-bell.
The compressed air, being forced against the bottom of the shaft, prevented the great mass of water from filtering through the sand.
The small quantity which filtered in was, by the force of the compressed air, driven through the sand pipe AN INGENIOUS APPARATUS.
Simonin, "and a cat suddenly to make her appearance, and you would have the picture of water reaching the bottom of our shafts through a thousand holes in the ground, if the presence of the air is lowered, and returning suddenly to the surface as soon as the air recovers its tension.
Trapdoors communicate from one stage to the other, by means of which the buckets are removed without any serious loss of the compressed air.
Shafts may be sunk through quicksands in this way to a depth of eighty or one hundred feet without difficulty.
The laborers who pass their time in the comn pressed air work as easily as in the open atmosphere.
Some of them, however, cannot remain there long, especially if they have the drum of the ear very delicate, or are in the habit of drinking to excess.
The pressure of air in the chambers rarely exceeds three or four atmospheres.
This apparatus is frequently used for laying the foundation of bridges in the beds of rivers, where there are deep quicksands.
The famous bridge of Kehl, near Strasbourg, was constructed in this way, and the engineers say that without some such apparatus the construction of the bridge would have been impossible.
If a shaft has been sunk and properly supported, - that is to say, timbered or walled, - it is generally divided into compartments.
The shafts are generally from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter, and consequently there is plenty of space for dividing them.
One of the compartments will serve for the tubs, cages, or buckets, in which the coal is raised.
Another is for pumps to draw off the water, and sometimes where the miners go up and down by ladders a compartment is made especially for them.
In all cases one compartment in the shaft serves as an airway or chimney, whether the draft is free or not.
In some countries the law requires that there shall be more than one 90 LEGAL NECESSITIES.
Many of the owners of mines are abandoning the single shaft system, and gradually supplying their mines with more than one entrance.
Many terrible accidents, accompanied by a great loss of life, might have been avoided had the mines been constructed with more than one entrance or shaft.
A striking example of this is in the terrible calamity at Avondale, a few years ago.
The most approved arrangement of shafts for a large mine where there is explosive gas, and where water is to be pumped, is to sink one shaft for the pumps, another fobr raising coals, and a third for ventilation.
At the bottom of the third one a large furnace is always kept burning.
In some of the mines there may be half a dozen shafts.
Those through which the coal is drawn are called the winding pits, those where the pumps are fitted are called pumping pits, those where the men go up and down, are called labor shafts, and those for the passage of air are known as air shafts.
In many mining regions there is a class of pits that have been abandoned in consequence of the coal beneath being worked out.
Sometimes these pits are made use of for purposes of' ventilation.
Proper care is not always taken of these abandoned holes, and they form dangerous precipices, through which a careless person may easily fall and be killed.
Strangers strolling in the vicinity of mines occasionally step into these shafts and disappear, to be seen no more alive.
ADVENTURE OF THE AUTHOR DESCENDING A SHAFT.
LIFTED THROUGH A SHAFT BY ONE LEG.
MY first journey down the shaft of a mine had of course a novelty about it, and also partook of the sensational.
It was not a coal mine into which Gambling news european descended, but a copper mine.
We stepped into a basket suspended by a hempen rope, and our conductor gave the signal to start.
The engineer slacked away the rope somehow, and we descended rapidly.
It seemed to me very much like falling out of a balloon.
I never have fallen out of a balloon, and therefore cannot say positively whether the sensation was like it or not.
I have been up in a balloon, and the sensation of going rapidly upward through the air is very much like that of going rapidly downward into the earth.
Down, down, down we went; and though the time was short, it seemed to me pretty long.
I had heard that there was generally at the bottom of the shaft of a mine a pool of water, which is called, in technical language, a " sump.
The descent was not quite eight hundred feet, but it seemed to me at least eight thousand.
Every little while we passed a hole, through which the light glimmered, and we could see, though only for the instant, into the various portions of the mine.
In one place, a miner was standing at the end of a level, and standing, too, very carelessly on the edge, and we narrowly escaped brushing him off.
Had we brushed against him, and thrown him from his perch to the bottom, he would not have been worth three cents a pound after being picked up.
When we reached the bottom, the basket was in a sort of basin, with a flooring of plank just even with its edge.
Miners were standing there with lanterns in their hands, or with candles stuck into their hats, and they assisted us to scramble off.
We had sufficient time to get out - or seemed to have; but one of the party, who had crouched to the bottom of the basket, was a long time gathering his limbs together, and picking himself up.
He did not pick up fast enough.
The engineer waited what he thought was a proper time for us to get out, and then the basket began to move upward just'as the dilatory man was putting a leg over its side.
As the basket moved up, he was partly in and partly outside, and there was a prospect of witnessing a very pretty accident on his account.
He was a distinguished stranger, and it would never do to have a person of his prominence killed there.
Our conductor seized the signal-rope and gave it a violent pull, which caused the engineer to send the basket back again, and wait until everything was ready.
The dilatory visitor scrambled out of IN THE SHAFT OF A Gambling age casino legal morongo />The shaft of a mine is a very good place for accidents.
Many of these occur from the carelessness of the miner, or the engineers, and sometimes from their incompetency.
By the old system, baskets or buckets'were raised or lowered by the winding or unwinding of a rope.
Of late years, a cage, travelling in guides, is used, which is much safer than the old system.
The miners are careless in consequence of their long acquaintance with the mines.
The first descent into a mine generally raises the pulse, and very often seriously alarms the visitor.
The miners will stand carelessly on the edge of a bucket; but the strangers generally seat themselves at the bottom, and it is sometimes necessary to turn the bucket upside down on reaching the floor of the mine before they can be induced to come out.
The shaft always appears smaller than it really is on account of the darkness.
It is never well lighted, and very often the glimmer of the lamps is just sufficient to make darkness visible.
Visitors are always subjects of merriment to the miners.
They show more or less fear in all their movements, especially in ascending and descending; but the miners go up and down the shaft laughing and talking, just as the soldier goes under fire and faces the storms of bullets.
The sight of the miners going down is a curious one.
The men stand r dy around the mouth of the shaft, and at the sound of the bell they crowd into the tubs or cages, or go down the ladders.
Their voices can be heard a moment, and then they gradually become fainter and fainter, till lost in the distance.
In some mines on the continent of Europe, prayers are offered by the miners before going down; in most mines, however, this is neglected, but many of the men cross themselves on leaving the upper air, and breathe a how break your gambling prayer to St.
Barbe, the great patron saint of the miners.
It is interesting to note the sudden pause in the conversation, to see the hands making the sign of the cross, the lips of 94 INTERESTING PRAYER SCENES.
I remember,o on one occasion, visiting a mine in Russia, whbre -the men gathered at the mouth of the pit seemed engaged in some sort of a dispute.
Suddenly a bell was sounded, and in an instant every cap was removed, and every man went through the Russian ceremonial of crossing himself.
This ceremony over, caps were restored to the heads of the owners, and the conversation was resumed as loudly and excitedly as ever.
I have seen a soldier standing at his'post, as a sentry, when the bell sounded, or the gun was fired, telling the -hour of sunset.
As the flag descended from the staff, the soldier supported his musket with his left arm, while with his right hand he performed the ceremonial which had been taught him by the church.
The shaft-is frequently called the miners' tomb; and it is said that the Belgians have intentionally named it The Grave La d-osse.
Great improvements have been made in the mode of ascending or descending, and at the present day the apparatus is considered nearly perfect.
Besides this, the heads of the men are shielded by hats made of' sheet iron or stout leather.
An indicator is kept in front of' the engine man, so that he knows precisely the position of the tub; and if there are two tubs in the shaft, one ascending and the other descending, he may know when they pass on their way.
In some coal mines the tubs or cages are double-decked, and some of them have four tiers or decks.
The greatest improvement is in the use of safety cages.
These consist literally of cages with a strong top to protect gg g � 1000i~~~~~~~~~~UNl DESt-IENDING A SHArFT.
If anything falls, the top of the cage protects the men.
If the rope breaks, a spring above the cage is set free, and catches in the guide, bringing the cage to a stand-still suddenly.
A great many accidents have been prevented by this contrivance.
Some of the safety cages, instead of wooden guides at the sides, are provided with long, stout strips of cast or wrought iron.
If the rope breaks, a spring at the top is suddenly thrown out, and catches in one of these notches.
Safety cages of an improved pattern are in use in many of the principal hotels of America, as well as in mines.
They }have been manufactured comparatively but a few years.
Soon after the Gould and Curry mine, in Nevada, was opened, one of these cages was placed in the principal shaft.
The owners of the mine were doubtful of its powers, and the owner of the machine set about convincing them.
When everything was ready, he loaded the cage with a ton of stone, then stepped on its top, and standing there suspended several hundred feet above the bottom, he deliberately cut the rope.
A shudder ran through the crowd of spectators who were standing around; but their terror was of' short duration.
The stout springs were thrown out, and the cage did not descend six inches, after the severance click at this page the rope, before it came to a stop.
Ludicrous incidents sometimes occur in these hoisting machines.
In one of the hotels in New York, not many months ago, the machinery one day became deranged while the elevator was in use.
It was full of passengers, and was between two floors in such a way that nobody could get in or out.
It required an casino gambling techniques and a half to arrange the machinery, and in this hour and a half a dozen persons were closely confined in the cage.
Such a combination of growls was never before heard in so small a space at one time in that hotel.
It was about half past two o'clock in the afternoon when the elevator stopped.
One man had a note to pay before three o'clock.
He did not pay it.
One lady in the elevator had 98 " PLENTY OF MEN.
Another man was very thirsty, and was on his way to his room to order up a drink.
And so through all the dozen persons who were detained in the elevator.
Every one had an important engagement, or a special reason for being in a hurry, when hurrying was of no earthly use.
In some of the mines of Europe there are neither safety cages, tubs, nor baskets.
At the salt mines of WVielizka, in Austrian Poland, the miners go down at the end of a long rope, to which several loops are faistened.
Each loop has a band across it to support the back.
The miner seats himself in one of these loops, leans against the band to support his back, clings to the rope with one hand, and holds his candle in the other.
Half a dozen men form a bunch in this way, and sometimes there is another bunch above them.
At a little distance the groups very much resemble a living chandelier.
Not only miners, but visitors, are lowered in this way, and the descent is very trying to a nervous person.
A traveller who went into the Wielizka mines in this way says he asked if men did not sometimes fall out of the loops.
Men are abundant about here, and when one is killed there is always somebody ready to take his place.

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Murder Mystery: The Red Ghost of the Tuileries Red Ghost murder.. office in Tuileries palace, apothecary.


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It has been suggested that this work be split into multiple pages.
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I VISITED Naples in the year 1818.
On the 8th of December of that year, my companion and I crossed the Bay, to visit the antiquities which are scattered on the shores of Baiae.
The translucent and shining waters of the calm sea covered fragments of old Roman villas, which were interlaced by sea-weed, and received diamond tints from the chequering of the sun-beams; the blue and pellucid element was such as Galatea might have skimmed in her car of mother of pearl; or Cleopatra, more fitly than the Nile, have chosen as the path of her magic ship.
Though it was winter, the atmosphere seemed more appropriate to early spring; and its genial warmth contributed to inspire those sensations of placid delight, which are the portion of every traveller, as he lingers, loath to quit the tranquil bays and radiant promontories of Baiae.
We visited the so called Elysian Fields and Avernus: and wandered through various ruined temples, baths, and classic spots; at length we entered the gloomy cavern of the Cumaean Sibyl.
Our Lazzeroni bore flaring torches, which shone red, and almost dusky, in the murky subterranean passages, whose darkness thirstily surrounding them, seemed eager to imbibe more and more of the element of light.
We passed by a natural archway, leading to a second gallery, and enquired, if we could not enter there also.
The guides pointed to the reflection of their torches on the water that paved it, leaving us to form our own conclusion; but adding it was a pity, for it led to the Sibyl's Cave.
Our curiosity and enthusiasm were excited by this circumstance, and we insisted upon attempting the passage.
As is usually the case in the prosecution of such enterprizes, the difficulties decreased on examination.
We found, on each side of the humid pathway, "dry land for the sole of the foot.
We were sufficiently disappointed--Yet we examined it with care, as if its blank, rocky walls could still bear trace of celestial visitant.
On one side was a small opening.
Whither does this lead?
Shall I go alone, or will you accompany me?
With great volubility, in their native Neapolitan dialect, with which we were not very familiar, they told us that there were spectres, that the roof would fall in, that it was too narrow to admit us, that there was a deep hole within, filled with water, and we might be drowned.
My friend shortened the harangue, by taking the man's torch from him; and we proceeded alone.
The passage, which at first scarcely admitted us, quickly grew narrower and lower; we were almost bent double; yet still we persisted in making our way through it.
At length we entered a wider space, and the low roof heightened; but, as we congratulated ourselves on this change, our torch was extinguished by a current of air, and we were left in utter darkness.
The guides bring with them materials for renewing the light, but we had none--our only resource was to return as we came.
We groped round the widened space to find the entrance, and after a time fancied that we had succeeded.
This proved however to be a second passage, which evidently ascended.
It terminated like the former; though something approaching to a ray, we could not tell whence, shed a very doubtful twilight in the space.
By degrees, our eyes grew somewhat accustomed to this dimness, and we perceived that there was no direct passage leading us further; but that it was possible to climb one side of the cavern to a low arch at top, which promised a more easy path, from whence we now discovered that this light proceeded.
With considerable difficulty we scrambled up, and came to another passage with still more of illumination, and this led to another ascent like the former.
After a succession of these, which our resolution alone permitted us to surmount, we arrived at a wide cavern with an arched dome-like roof.
An aperture in the midst let in the light of heaven; but this was overgrown with brambles and underwood, which acted as a veil, obscuring the day, and giving a solemn religious hue to the apartment.
It was spacious, and nearly circular, with a raised seat of stone, about the size of a Grecian couch, at one end.
The only sign that life had been here, was the perfect snow-white skeleton of a goat, which had probably not perceived the opening as it grazed on the hill above, and had fallen headlong.
Ages perhaps had elapsed since this catastrophe; and the ruin it had made above, had been repaired by the growth of vegetation during many hundred summers.
The rest of the furniture of the cavern consisted of piles of leaves, fragments of bark, and a white filmy substance, resembling the inner part of the green hood which shelters the grain of the unripe Indian corn.
We were fatigued by our struggles to attain this point, and seated ourselves on the rocky couch, while the sounds of tinkling sheep-bells, and shout of shepherd-boy, reached us from above.
At length my friend, who had taken up some of the leaves strewed about, exclaimed, "This is the Sibyl's cave; these are Sibylline leaves.
What appeared to us more astonishing, was that these writings were expressed in various languages: some unknown to my companion, ancient Chaldee, and Egyptian hieroglyphics, old as the Pyramids.
Stranger still, some were in modern dialects, English and Italian.
We could make out little by the dim light, but they seemed to contain prophecies, detailed relations of events but lately passed; names, now well known, but of modern date; and often exclamations of exultation or woe, of victory or defeat, were traced on their thin scant pages.
This was certainly the Sibyl's Cave; not indeed exactly as Virgil describes it, but the whole of this land had been so convulsed by earthquake and volcano, that the change was not wonderful, though the traces of ruin were effaced by time; and we probably owed the preservation of these leaves, to the accident which had closed the mouth of the cavern, and the swift-growing vegetation which had rendered its sole opening impervious to the storm.
We made a hasty selection of such of the leaves, whose writing one at least of jackpot machine casino could understand; and then, laden with our treasure, we bade adieu to the dim hypaethric cavern, and after much difficulty succeeded in rejoining our guides.
During our stay at Naples, we often returned to this cave, sometimes alone, skimming the sun-lit sea, and each time added to our store.
Since that period, whenever the world's circumstance has not imperiously called me away, or the temper of my mind impeded such study, I have been employed in deciphering these sacred remains.
Their meaning, wondrous and eloquent, has often repaid my toil, soothing me in sorrow, and exciting my imagination to daring flights, through the immensity of nature and the mind of man.
For awhile my labours were not solitary; but that time is gone; and, with the selected and matchless companion of my toils, their dearest reward is also lost to me-- Di mie tenere frondi altro lavoro Credea mostrarte; e qual fero pianeta Ne' nvidio insieme, o mio nobil tesoro?
I present the public with my latest discoveries in the slight Sibylline pages.
Scattered and unconnected as they were, I have been obliged to add links, and model the work into a consistent form.
But the main substance rests on the truths contained in these poetic rhapsodies, and the divine intuition which the Cumaean damsel obtained from heaven.
I have often wondered at the subject of her verses, and at the English dress of the Latin poet.
Sometimes I have thought, that, obscure and chaotic as they are, they owe their present form to me, their decipherer.
As if we should give to another artist, the painted fragments which form the mosaic copy of Raphael's Transfiguration in St.
Peter's; he would put them together in a form, whose mode would be fashioned by his own peculiar mind and talent.
Doubtless the leaves of the Cumaean Sibyl have suffered distortion and diminution of interest and excellence in my hands.
My only excuse for thus transforming them, is that they were unintelligible in their pristine condition.
My labours have cheered long hours of solitude, and taken me out of a world, which has averted its once benignant face from me, to one glowing with imagination and power.
Will my readers ask how I could find solace from the narration of misery and woeful change?
This is one of the mysteries of our nature, which holds full sway over me, and from whose influence I cannot escape.
I confess, that I have not been unmoved by the development of the tale; and that I have been depressed, nay, agonized, at some parts of the recital, which I have faithfully transcribed from my materials.
Yet such is human nature, that the excitement of mind was dear to me, and that the imagination, painter of tempest and earthquake, or, worse, the stormy and ruin-fraught passions of man, softened my real sorrows and endless regrets, by clothing these fictitious ones in that ideality, which takes the mortal sting from pain.
I hardly know whether this apology is necessary.
For the merits of my adaptation and translation must decide how far I have well bestowed my time and imperfect powers, in giving form and substance to the frail and attenuated Leaves of the Sibyl.
I AM the native of a sea-surrounded nook, a cloud-enshadowed land, which, when the surface of the globe, with its shoreless ocean and trackless continents, presents itself to my mind, appears only as an inconsiderable speck in the immense whole; and yet, when balanced in the scale of mental power, far outweighed countries of larger extent and more numerous population.
So true it is, that man's mind alone was the creator of all that was good or great to man, and that Nature herself was only his first minister.
England, seated far north in the turbid sea, now visits my dreams in the semblance of a vast and well-manned ship, which mastered the winds and rode proudly over the waves.
In my boyish days she was the universe to me.
When I stood on my native hills, and saw plain and mountain stretch out to the utmost limits of my vision, speckled by the dwellings of my countrymen, and subdued to fertility by their labours, the earth's very centre was fixed for me in that spot, and the rest of her orb was as a fable, to have forgotten which click to see more have cost neither my imagination nor understanding an effort.
My fortunes have been, from the beginning, an exemplification of the power that mutability may possess over the varied tenor of man's life.
With regard to myself, this came almost by inheritance.
My father was one of those men on whom nature had bestowed to prodigality the envied gifts of wit and imagination, and then left his bark of life to be impelled by these winds, without adding reason as the rudder, or judgment as the pilot for the voyage.
His extraction was obscure; but circumstances brought him early into public notice, and his small paternal property was soon dissipated in the splendid scene of fashion and luxury in which he was an actor.
During the short years of thoughtless youth, he was adored by the high-bred triflers of the day, nor least by the youthful sovereign, who escaped from the intrigues of party, and the arduous duties of kingly business, to find never-failing amusement and exhilaration of spirit in his society.
My father's impulses, never under his own controul, perpetually led him into difficulties from which his ingenuity alone could extricate him; and the accumulating pile of debts of honour and of trade, which would have bent to earth any other, was supported by him with a light spirit and tameless hilarity; while his company was so necessary at the tables and assemblies of the rich, that his derelictions were considered venial, and he himself received with intoxicating flattery.
This kind of popularity, like every other, is evanescent: and the difficulties of every kind with which he had to contend, increased in a frightful ratio compared with his small means of extricating himself.
At such times the king, in his enthusiasm for him, would come to his relief, and then kindly take his friend to task; my father gave the best promises for amendment, but his social disposition, his craving for the usual diet of admiration, and more than all, the fiend of gambling, which fully possessed him, made his good resolutions transient, his promises vain.
With the quick sensibility peculiar to his temperament, he perceived his power in the brilliant circle to be on the wane.
The king married; and the haughty princess of Austria, who became, as queen of England, the head of fashion, looked with harsh eyes on his defects, and with contempt on the affection her royal husband entertained for him.
My father felt that his fall was near; but so far from profiting by this last calm before the storm to save himself, he sought to forget anticipated evil by making still greater sacrifices to the deity of pleasure, deceitful and cruel arbiter of his destiny.
The king, who was a man of excellent dispositions, but easily led, had now become a willing disciple of his imperious consort.
He was induced to look with extreme disapprobation, and at last with distaste, on my father's imprudence and follies.
It is true that his presence dissipated these clouds; his warm-hearted frankness, brilliant sallies, and confiding demeanour were irresistible: it was only when at a distance, while still renewed tales of his errors were poured into his royal friend's ear, that he lost his influence.
The queen's dextrous management was employed to prolong these absences, and gather together accusations.
At length the king was brought to see in him a source of perpetual disquiet, click to see more that he should pay for the short-lived pleasure of his society by tedious homilies, and more painful narrations of excesses, the truth of which he could not disprove.
The result was, that he would make one more attempt to reclaim him, and in case of ill success, cast him off for ever.
Such a scene must have been one of deepest interest and high-wrought passion.
A powerful king, conspicuous for a goodness which had heretofore made him meek, and now lofty in his admonitions, with alternate entreaty and reproof, besought his friend to attend to his real interests, resolutely to avoid those fascinations which in fact were fast deserting him, and to spend his great powers on a worthy field, in which he, his sovereign, would be his prop, his stay, and his pioneer.
My father felt this kindness; for a moment ambitious dreams floated before him; and he thought that it would be well to exchange his present pursuits for nobler duties.
With sincerity and fervour he gave the required promise: as a pledge of continued favour, he received from his royal master a sum of money to defray pressing debts, and enable him to enter under good auspices his new career.
That very night, while yet full of gratitude and good resolves, this whole sum, and its amount doubled, was lost at the gaming-table.
In his desire to repair his first losses, my father risked double stakes, and thus incurred a debt of honour he was wholly unable to pay.
Ashamed to apply again to the king, he turned his back upon London, its false delights and clinging red ghost tuileries gambling den and, with poverty for his sole companion, buried himself in solitude among the hills and lakes of Cumberland.
His wit, his bon mots, the record of his personal attractions, fascinating manners, and social talents, were long remembered and repeated from mouth to mouth.
Ask where now was this favourite of fashion, this companion of the noble, this excelling beam, which gilt with alien splendour the assemblies of the courtly and the gay--you heard that he was under a cloud, a lost man; not one thought it belonged to him to repay pleasure by real services, or that his long reign of brilliant wit deserved a pension on retiring.
The king lamented his absence; he loved to repeat his sayings, relate the adventures they had had together, and exalt his talents--but here ended his reminiscence.
Meanwhile my father, forgotten, could not forget.
He repined for the loss of what was more necessary to him than air or food--the excitements of pleasure, the admiration of the noble, the luxurious and polished living of the great.
A nervous fever was the consequence; during which he was nursed by the daughter of a poor cottager, under whose roof he lodged.
She was lovely, gentle, and, above all, kind to him; nor can it afford astonishment, that the late idol of high-bred beauty should, even in a fallen state, appear a being of article source elevated and wondrous nature to the lowly cottage-girl.
The attachment between them led to the ill-fated marriage, of which I was the offspring.
Notwithstanding the tenderness and sweetness of my mother, her husband still deplored his degraded state.
Unaccustomed to industry, he knew not in what way to contribute to the support of his increasing family.
Sometimes he thought of applying to the king; pride and shame for a while withheld him; and, before his necessities became so imperious as to compel him to some kind of exertion, he died.
For one brief interval before this catastrophe, he link forward to the future, and contemplated with anguish the desolate situation in which his wife and children would be left.
His last effort was a letter to the king, full of touching eloquence, and of occasional flashes of that brilliant spirit which was an integral part of him.
He bequeathed his widow and orphans to the friendship of his royal master, and felt satisfied that, by this means, their prosperity was better assured in his death than in his life.
This letter was enclosed to the care of a nobleman, who, he did not doubt, would perform the last and inexpensive office of placing it in the king's own hand.
He died in debt, and his little property was seized immediately by his creditors.
My mother, pennyless and burthened with two children, waited week after week, and month after month, in sickening expectation of a reply, which never came.
She had no experience beyond her father's cottage; and the mansion of the lord of the click at this page was the chiefest type of grandeur she could conceive.
During my father's life, she had been made familiar with the name of royalty and the courtly circle; but such things, ill according with her personal experience, appeared, after the loss of him who gave substance and reality to them, vague and fantastical.
If, under any circumstances, she could have acquired sufficient courage to address the noble persons mentioned by her husband, the ill success of his own application caused her to banish the idea.
She saw therefore no escape from dire penury: perpetual care, joined to sorrow for the loss of the wondrous being, whom she continued to contemplate with ardent admiration, hard labour, and naturally delicate health, at length released her from the sad continuity of want and misery.
The condition of her orphan children was peculiarly desolate.
Her own father had been an emigrant from another part of the country, and had died long since: they had no one relation to take them by the hand; they were outcasts, paupers, unfriended beings, to whom the most scanty pittance was a matter of favour, and who were treated merely as children of peasants, yet poorer than the poorest, who, dying, had left them, a thankless bequest, to the close-handed charity of the land.
I, the elder of the two, was five years old when my mother died.
A remembrance of the discourses of my parents, and the communications which my mother endeavoured to impress upon me concerning my father's friends, in slight hope that I might one day derive benefit from the knowledge, floated like an indistinct dream through my brain.
I conceived that I was different and superior to my protectors and companions, but I knew not how or wherefore.
The sense of injury, associated with the name of king and noble, clung to me; but I could draw no conclusions from such feelings, to serve as a guide to action.
My first real knowledge of myself was as an unprotected orphan among the valleys and fells of Cumberland.
I was in the service of a farmer; and with crook in hand, my dog at my side, I shepherded a numerous flock on the near uplands.
I cannot say much in praise of such a life; and its pains far exceeded its pleasures.
There was freedom in it, a companionship with nature, and a reckless loneliness; but these, romantic as they were, did not accord with the love of action and desire of human sympathy, characteristic of youth.
Neither the care of my flock, nor the change of seasons, were sufficient to tame my eager spirit; my out-door life and unemployed time were the temptations that led me early into lawless habits.
I associated with others friendless like myself; I formed them into a band, I was their chief and captain.
All shepherd-boys alike, while our flocks were spread over the pastures, we schemed and executed many a mischievous prank, which drew on us the anger and revenge of the rustics.
I was the leader and protector of my comrades, and as I became distinguished among them, their misdeeds were usually visited upon me.
But while I endured punishment and pain in their defence with the spirit of an gambling website, I claimed as my reward their praise and obedience.
In such a school my disposition became rugged, but firm.
The appetite for admiration and small capacity for self-controul which I inherited from my father, nursed by adversity, made me daring and reckless.
I was rough as the elements, and unlearned as the animals I tended.
I often compared myself to them, and finding that my chief superiority consisted in power, I soon persuaded myself that it was in power only that I was inferior to the chiefest potentates of the earth.
Thus untaught in refined philosophy, and pursued by a restless feeling of degradation from my true station in society, I wandered among the hills of civilized England as uncouth a savage as the wolf-bred founder of old Rome.
I owned but one law, it was that of the strongest, and my greatest deed of virtue was never to submit.
Yet let me a little retract from this sentence I have passed on myself.
My mother, when dying, had, in addition to her other half-forgotten and misapplied lessons, committed, with solemn exhortation, her other child to my fraternal guardianship; and this one duty I performed to the best of my ability, with all the zeal and affection of which my nature was capable.
My sister was three years younger than myself; I had nursed her as an infant, and when the difference of our sexes, by giving us various occupations, in a great measure divided us, yet she continued to be the object of my careful love.
Orphans, in the fullest sense of the term, we were poorest among the poor, and despised among the unhonoured.
If my daring and courage obtained for me a kind of respectful aversion, her youth and sex, since they did not excite tenderness, by proving her to be weak, were the causes of numberless mortifications to her; and her own disposition was not so constituted as to diminish the evil effects of her lowly station.
She was a singular being, and, like me, inherited much of the peculiar disposition of our father.
Her countenance was all expression; her eyes were not dark, but impenetrably deep; you seemed to discover space after space in their intellectual glance, and to feel that the soul which was their soul, comprehended an universe of thought in its ken.
She was pale and fair, and her golden hair clustered on her temples, contrasting its rich hue with the living marble beneath.
Her coarse peasant-dress, little consonant apparently with the refinement of feeling which her face expressed, yet in a strange manner accorded with it.
She was like one of Guido's saints, with heaven in her heart and in her look, so that when you saw her you only thought of that within, and costume and just click for source feature were secondary to the mind that beamed in her countenance.
Yet though lovely and full of noble feeling, my poor Perdita for this was the fanciful name my sister had received from her dying parentwas not altogether saintly in her disposition.
Her manners were cold and repulsive.
If she had been nurtured by those who had regarded her with affection, she might have been different; but unloved and neglected, she repaid want of kindness with distrust and silence.
She was submissive to those who held authority over her, but a perpetual cloud dwelt on her brow; she looked as this web page she expected enmity from every one who approached her, and her actions were instigated by the same feeling.
All the time she could command she spent in solitude.
She would ramble to the most unfrequented places, and scale dangerous heights, that in those unvisited spots she might wrap herself in loneliness.
Often she passed whole hours walking up and down the paths of the woods; she wove garlands of flowers and ivy, or watched the flickering of the shadows and glancing of the leaves; sometimes she sat beside a stream, and as her thoughts paused, threw flowers or pebbles into the waters, watching how those swam and these sank; or she would set afloat boats formed of bark of trees or leaves, with a feather for a sail, and intensely watch the navigation of her craft among the rapids and shallows of the brook.
Meanwhile her active fancy wove a thousand combinations; she dreamt "of moving accidents by flood and field"--she lost herself delightedly in these self-created wanderings, and returned with unwilling spirit to the dull detail of common life.
Poverty was the cloud that veiled her excellencies, and all that was good in her seemed about to perish from want of the genial dew of affection.
She georgia gambling statute not even the same advantage as I in the recollection of her parents; she clung to me, her brother, as her only friend, but her alliance with me completed the distaste that her protectors felt for her; and every error was magnified by them into crimes.
If she had been bred in that sphere of life to which by inheritance the delicate framework of her mind and person was adapted, she would have been the object almost of adoration, for her virtues were as eminent as her defects.
All the genius that ennobled the blood of her father illustrated hers; a generous tide flowed in her veins; artifice, envy, or meanness, were at the antipodes of her nature; her countenance, when enlightened by amiable feeling, might have belonged to a queen of nations; her eyes were bright; her look fearless.
Although by our situation and dispositions we were almost equally cut off from the usual forms of social intercourse, we formed a strong contrast to each other.
I always required the stimulants of companionship and applause.
Perdita was all-sufficient to herself.
Notwithstanding my lawless habits, my disposition was sociable, hers recluse.
My life was spent among tangible realities, hers was a dream.
I might be said even to love my enemies, since by exciting me they in a sort bestowed happiness upon me; Perdita almost disliked her friends, for they interfered with her visionary moods.
All my feelings, even of exultation and triumph, were changed to bitterness, if unparticipated; Perdita, even in joy, fled to loneliness, and could go on from day to day, neither expressing her emotions, nor seeking a fellow-feeling in another mind.
Nay, she could love and dwell with tenderness on the look and voice of her friend, while her demeanour expressed the coldest reserve.
A sensation with her became a sentiment, and she never spoke until she had mingled her perceptions of outward objects with others which were the native growth of her own mind.
She was like a fruitful soil that imbibed the airs and dews of heaven, and gave them forth again to light in loveliest forms of fruits and flowers; but then she was often dark and rugged as that soil, raked up, and new sown with unseen seed.
She dwelt in a cottage whose trim grass-plat sloped down to the waters of the lake of Ulswater; a beech wood stretched up the hill behind, and a purling brook gently falling from the acclivity ran through poplar-shaded banks into this web page lake.
I lived with a farmer whose house was built higher up among the hills: a dark crag rose behind it, and, exposed to the north, the snow lay in its crevices the summer through.
Before dawn I led my flock to the sheep-walks, and guarded them through the day.
It was a life of toil; for rain and cold were more frequent than sunshine; but it was my pride to contemn the elements.
My trusty dog watched the sheep as I slipped away to the rendezvous of my comrades, and thence to the accomplishment of our schemes.
At noon we met again, and we threw away in contempt our peasant fare, as we built our fire-place and kindled the cheering blaze destined to cook the game stolen from the neighbouring preserves.
Then came the tale of hair-breadth escapes, combats with dogs, ambush and flight, as gipsey-like we encompassed our pot.
The search after a stray lamb, or the devices by which we elude or endeavoured to elude punishment, filled up the hours of afternoon; in the evening my flock went to its fold, and I to my sister.
It was seldom indeed that we escaped, to use an old-fashioned phrase, scot free.
Our dainty fare was often exchanged for blows and imprisonment.
Once, when thirteen years of age, I was sent for a month to the county jail.
I came out, my morals unimproved, my hatred to my oppressors encreased tenfold.
Bread and water did not tame my blood, nor solitary confinement inspire me with gentle thoughts.
I was angry, impatient, miserable; my only happy hours were those during which I devised schemes of revenge; these were perfected in my forced solitude, so that during the whole of the following season, and I was freed early in September, I never failed to provide excellent and plenteous fare for myself and my comrades.
This was a glorious winter.
The sharp frost and heavy snows tamed the animals, and kept the country gentlemen by their firesides; we got more game than we could eat, and my faithful dog grew sleek upon our refuse.
Thus years passed on; and years only added fresh love of freedom, and contempt for all that was not as wild and rude as myself.
At the age of sixteen I had shot up in appearance to man's estate; I was tall and athletic; I was practised to feats of strength, and inured to the inclemency of the elements.
My skin was embrowned by the sun; my step was firm with conscious power.
I feared no man, and loved none.
In after life I looked back with wonder to what I then was; how utterly worthless I should have become if I had pursued my lawless career.
My life was like that of an animal, and my mind was in danger of degenerating into that which informs brute nature.
Until now, my savage habits had done me no radical mischief; my physical powers had grown up and flourished under their influence, and my mind, undergoing the same discipline, was imbued with all the hardy virtues.
But now my boasted independence was daily instigating me to acts of tyranny, and freedom was becoming licentiousness.
I stood on the brink of manhood; passions, strong as the trees of a forest, had already taken root within me, and were about to shadow with their noxious overgrowth, my path of life.
I panted for enterprises beyond my childish exploits, and formed distempered dreams of future action.
I avoided my ancient comrades, and I soon lost them.
They arrived at the age when they were sent to fulfil their destined situations in life; while I, an outcast, with none to lead or drive me forward, paused.
The old began to point at me as an example, the young to wonder at me as a being distinct from themselves; I hated them, and began, last and worst degradation, to hate myself.
I clung to my ferocious habits, yet half despised them; I continued my war against civilization, and yet entertained a wish to belong to it.
I revolved again and again all that I remembered my mother to have told me of my father's former life; I contemplated the few relics I possessed belonging to him, which spoke of greater refinement than could be found among the mountain cottages; but nothing in all this served as a guide to lead me to another and pleasanter way of life.
My father had been connected with nobles, but all I knew of such connection was subsequent neglect.
The name of the king,--he to whom my dying father had addressed his latest prayers, and who had barbarously slighted them, was associated only with the ideas of unkindness, injustice, and consequent resentment.
I was born for something greater than I was--and greater I would become; but greatness, at least to my distorted perceptions, was no necessary associate of goodness, and my wild thoughts were unchecked by moral considerations when they rioted in dreams of distinction.
Thus I stood upon a pinnacle, a sea of evil rolled at my feet; I was about to precipitate myself into it, and rush like a torrent over all obstructions to the object of my wishes-- when a stranger influence came over the current of my fortunes, and changed their boisterous course to what was in comparison like the gentle meanderings of a meadow-encircling streamlet.
I LIVED far from the busy haunts of men, and the rumour of wars or political changes came worn to a mere sound, to our mountain abodes.
England had been the scene of momentous struggles, during my early boyhood.
In the year 2073, the last of its kings, the ancient friend of my father, had abdicated in compliance with the gentle force of the remonstrances of his subjects, and a republic was instituted.
Large estates were secured to the dethroned monarch and his family; he received the title of Earl of Windsor, and Windsor Castle, an ancient royalty, with its wide demesnes were a part of his allotted wealth.
He died soon after, leaving two children, a son and a daughter.
The ex-queen, a princess of the house of Austria, had long impelled her husband to withstand the necessity of the times.
She was haughty and fearless; she cherished a love of power, and a bitter contempt for him who had despoiled himself of a kingdom.
For her children's sake alone she consented to remain, shorn of regality, a member of the English republic.
When she became a widow, she turned all her thoughts to the educating her son Adrian, second Earl of Windsor, so as to accomplish her ambitious ends; and with his mother's milk he imbibed, and was intended to grow up in the steady purpose of re-acquiring his lost crown.
Adrian was now fifteen years of age.
He was addicted to study, and imbued beyond his years with learning and talent: report said that he had already begun to thwart his mother's views, and to entertain republican principles.
However this might be, the haughty Countess entrusted none with the secrets of her family-tuition.
Adrian was bred up in solitude, and kept apart from the natural companions of his age and rank.
Some unknown circumstance now induced his mother to send him from under her immediate tutelage; and we heard that he was about to visit Cumberland.
A thousand tales were rife, explanatory of the Countess of Windsor's conduct; none true probably; but each day it became more certain that we should have the noble scion of the late regal house of England among us.
There was a large estate with a mansion attached to it, belonging to this family, at Ulswater.
A large park was one of its appendages, laid out with great taste, and plentifully stocked with game.
I had often made depredations on these preserves; and the neglected state of the property facilitated my incursions.
When it was decided that the young Earl of Windsor should visit Cumberland, workmen arrived to put the house and grounds in order for his reception.
The apartments were restored to their pristine splendour, and the park, all disrepairs restored, was guarded with unusual care.
I was beyond measure disturbed by this intelligence.
It roused all my dormant recollections, my suspended sentiments of injury, and gave rise to the new one of revenge.
I could no longer attend to my occupations; all my plans and devices were forgotten; I seemed about to begin life anew, and that under no good auspices.
The tug of war, I thought, was now to begin.
He would come triumphantly to the district to which my parent had fled broken-hearted; he would find the ill-fated offspring, bequeathed with such vain confidence to his royal father, miserable paupers.
That he should know of our existence, and treat us, near at hand, with the same contumely which his father had practised in distance and absence, appeared to me the certain consequence of all that had gone before.
Thus then I should meet this titled stripling--the son of my father's friend.
He would be hedged in by servants; nobles, and the sons of nobles, were his companions; all England rang with his name; and his coming, like a thunderstorm, was heard from far: while I, unlettered and unfashioned, should, if I came in contact with him, in the judgment of his courtly followers, bear evidence in my very person to the propriety of that ingratitude which had made me the degraded being I appeared.
With my mind fully occupied by these ideas, I might be said as if fascinated, to haunt the destined abode of the young Earl.
I watched the progress of the improvements, and stood by the unlading waggons, as various articles of luxury, brought from London, were taken forth and conveyed into the mansion.
It was part of the Ex-Queen's plan, to surround her son with princely magnificence.
I beheld rich carpets and silken hangings, ornaments of gold, richly embossed metals, emblazoned furniture, and all the visit web page of high rank arranged, so that nothing but what was regal in splendour should reach the eye of one of royal descent.
I looked on these; I turned my gaze to my own mean dress.
Whence but from ingratitude, from falsehood, from a dereliction on the part of the prince's father, of all noble sympathy and generous feeling.
Doubtless, he also, whose blood received a mingling tide from his proud mother--he, the acknowledged focus of the kingdom's wealth and nobility, had been taught to repeat my father's name with disdain, and to scoff at my just claims to protection.
I strove to think that all this grandeur was but more glaring infamy, and that, by planting his gold-enwoven flag beside my tarnished and tattered banner, he proclaimed not his superiority, but his debasement.
Yet I envied him.
His stud of beautiful horses, his arms of costly workmanship, the praise that attended him, the adoration, ready servitor, high place and high esteem,--I considered them as forcibly wrenched from me, and envied them all with novel and tormenting bitterness.
To crown my vexation of spirit, Perdita, the visionary Perdita, seemed to awake to real life with transport, when she told me that the Earl of Windsor was about to arrive.
His rank his click to see more merit, do you say?
Why, all his virtues are derived from his station only; because he is rich, he is called generous; because he is powerful, brave; because he is well served, he is affable.
Let them call him so, let all England believe him to be thus--we know him--he is our enemy--our penurious, dastardly, arrogant enemy; if he were gifted with one particle of the virtues you call his, he would do justly by us, if it were only to shew, that if he must strike, it should not be a fallen foe.
His father injured my father--his father, unassailable on his throne, dared despise him who only laundering gambling money australia beneath himself, when he deigned to associate with the royal ingrate.
We, descendants from the one and the other, must be enemies also.
He shall find that I can feel my injuries; he shall learn to dread my revenge!
Every inhabitant of the most miserable cottage, went to swell the stream of population that poured forth to meet him: even Perdita, in spite of my late philippic, crept near the highway, to behold this idol of all hearts.
I, driven half mad, as I met party after party of the country people, in their holiday best, descending the hills, escaped to their cloud-veiled summits, and looking on the sterile rocks about me, exclaimed--"They do not cry, long live the Earl!
All was attributed to him, for I confounded so entirely the idea of father and son, that I forgot that the latter might be wholly unconscious of his parent's neglect of us; and as I struck my aching head with my hand, I cried: "He shall hear of this!
I will be revenged!
I will not suffer like a spaniel!
He shall know, beggar and friendless as I am, that I will not tamely submit to injury!
His praises were so many adder's stings infixed in my vulnerable breast.
If I saw him at a distance, riding a beautiful horse, my blood boiled with rage; the air seemed poisoned by his presence, and my very native English was changed to a vile jargon, since every phrase I heard was coupled with his name and honour.
I panted to relieve this painful heart-burning by some misdeed that should rouse him to a sense of my antipathy.
It was the height of red ghost tuileries gambling den offending, that he should occasion in me such intolerable sensations, and not deign himself to afford any demonstration that he was aware that I even lived to feel them.
It soon became known that Adrian took great delight in his park and preserves.
He never sported, but spent hours in watching the tribes of lovely and almost tame animals with which it was stocked, and ordered that greater care should be taken of them than ever.
Here was an opening for my plans of offence, and I made use of it with all the brute impetuosity I derived from my active mode of life.
I proposed the enterprize click at this page poaching on his demesne to my few remaining comrades, who were the most determined and lawless of the crew; but they all shrunk from the peril; so I was left to achieve my revenge myself.
At first my exploits were unperceived; I increased in daring; https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-horror-stories-reddit.html on the dewy grass, torn boughs, and marks of slaughter, at length betrayed me to the game-keepers.
They kept better watch; I was taken, and sent to prison.
I entered its gloomy walls in a fit of triumphant extasy: "He feels me now," I cried, "and shall, again and again!
This news precipitated me from my self-raised pinnacle of honour.
He despises me, I thought; but he shall learn that I despise him, and hold in equal contempt his punishments and his clemency.
On the second night after my release, I was again taken by the gamekeepers--again imprisoned, and again released; and again, such was my pertinacity, did the fourth night find me in the forbidden park.
The gamekeepers were more enraged than their lord by my obstinacy.
They had received orders that if I were again taken, I should be brought to the Earl; and his lenity made them expect a conclusion which they considered ill befitting my crime.
One of them, who had been from the first the leader among those who had seized me, resolved to satisfy his own resentment, before he made me over to the higher powers.
The late setting of the moon, and the extreme caution I was obliged to use in this my third expedition, consumed so much time, that something like a qualm of fear came over me when I perceived dark night yield to twilight.
I crept along by the fern, on my hands and knees, seeking the shadowy coverts of the underwood, while the birds awoke with unwelcome song above, and the fresh morning wind, playing among the boughs, made me suspect a footfall at each turn.
My heart beat quick as I approached the palings; my hand was on one of them, a leap would take me to the other side, when two keepers sprang from an ambush upon me: one knocked me down, and proceeded to inflict go here severe horse-whipping.
I started up--a knife was in my grasp; I made a plunge at his click right arm, and inflicted a deep, wide wound in his hand.
The rage and yells of the wounded man, the howling execrations of his comrade, which I answered with equal bitterness and fury, echoed through the dell; morning broke more and more, ill accordant in its celestial beauty with our brute and noisy contest.
I and my enemy were still struggling, when the wounded man exclaimed, "The Earl!
My garments were torn, and they, as well as my hands, were stained with the blood of the man I had wounded; one hand grasped the dead birds--my hard-earned prey, the other held the knife; my hair was matted; my face besmeared with the same guilty signs that bore witness against me on the dripping instrument I clenched; my whole appearance was haggard and squalid.
Tall and muscular as I was in form, I must have looked like, what indeed I was, the merest ruffian that ever trod the earth.
The name of the Earl startled me, and caused all the indignant blood that warmed my heart to rush into my cheeks; I had never seen him before; I figured to myself a haughty, assuming youth, who would take me to task, if he deigned to speak to me, with all the arrogance of superiority.
My reply was ready; a reproach I deemed calculated to sting his very heart.
He came up the while; and his appearance blew aside, with gentle western breath, my cloudy wrath: a tall, slim, fair boy, with a physiognomy expressive of the excess of sensibility and refinement stood before me; the morning sunbeams tinged with gold his silken hair, and spread light and glory over his beaming countenance.
The men eagerly began their defence; he put them aside, saying, "Two of you at once on a mere lad-- for shame!
We were born to https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/facebook-gambling-groups.html friends to each other; and though ill fortune has divided us, will you not acknowledge the hereditary bond of friendship which I trust will hereafter unite us?
I desired to reply, to acknowledge his goodness, accept his proffered friendship; but words, fitting words, were not afforded to the rough mountaineer; I would have held out my hand, but its guilty stain restrained me.
Adrian took pity on my faltering mien: "Come with me," he said, "I have much to say to you; come home with me--you know who I am?
It was not his rank--after all that I have said, surely it will not be suspected that it was Adrian's rank, that, from the first, subdued my heart of hearts, and laid my entire spirit prostrate before him.
Nor was it I alone who felt thus intimately his perfections.
His sensibility and courtesy fascinated every one.
His vivacity, intelligence, and active spirit of benevolence, completed the conquest.
Even at this early age, he was deep read and imbued with the spirit of high philosophy.
This spirit gave a tone of irresistible persuasion to his intercourse with others, so that he seemed like an inspired musician, who struck, with unerring skill, the "lyre of mind," and produced thence divine harmony.
In person, he hardly appeared of this world; his slight frame was overinformed by the soul that dwelt within; he was all mind; "Man but a rush against" his breast, and it would have conquered his strength; but the might of his smile would have tamed an hungry lion, or caused a legion of armed men to lay their weapons at his feet.
I spent the day with him.
At first he did not recur to the past, or indeed to any personal occurrences.
He wished probably to inspire me with confidence, and give me time to gather together my scattered thoughts.
He talked of general subjects, and gave me ideas I had never before conceived.
We sat in his library, and he spoke of the old Greek sages, and of the power which they had acquired over the minds of men, through the force of love and wisdom only.
The room was decorated with the busts of many of them, and he described their characters to me.
As he spoke, I felt subject to him; and all my boasted pride and strength were subdued by the honeyed accents excellent modern forms of gambling really this blue-eyed boy.
The trim and paled demesne of civilization, which I had before regarded from my wild jungle as inaccessible, had its wicket opened by him; I stepped within, and felt, as I entered, that I trod my native soil.
As evening came on, he reverted to the past.
Do you remember your father?
I had never the happiness of seeing him, but his name is one of my earliest recollections: he stands written in red ghost tuileries gambling den mind's tablets as the type of all that was gallant, amiable, and fascinating in man.
His wit was not more conspicuous than the overflowing goodness of his heart, which he poured in such full measure on his friends, as to leave, alas!
When, in after times, Adrian's father, then king of England, felt his situation become more perilous, his line of conduct more embarrassed, again and again he wished for his early friend, who might stand a mound against the impetuous anger of his queen, a mediator between him and the parliament.
From the time that he had quitted London, on the fatal night of his defeat at the gaming-table, the king had received no tidings concerning him; and when, after the lapse of years, he exerted himself to discover him, every trace was lost.
just click for source fonder regret than ever, he clung to his memory; and gave it in charge to his son, if ever he should meet this valued friend, in his name to bestow every succour, and to assure him that, to the last, his attachment survived separation and silence.
A short time before Adrian's visit to Cumberland, the heir of the nobleman to whom my father had confided his last appeal to his royal master, put this letter, its seal unbroken, into the young Earl's hands.
It had been found cast aside with a mass of papers of old date, and accident alone brought it to light.
Adrian read it with deep interest; and found there that living spirit of genius and wit he had so often heard commemorated.
He discovered the name of the spot whither my father had retreated, and where he died; he learnt the existence of his orphan children; and during the short interval between his arrival at Ulswater and our meeting in the park, he had been occupied in making inquiries concerning us, and arranging a variety of plans for our benefit, preliminary to his introducing himself to our notice.
The mode in which he spoke of my father was gratifying to my vanity; the veil which he delicately cast over his benevolence, in alledging a duteous fulfilment of the king's latest will, was soothing to my pride.
Other feelings, less ambiguous, were called into play by his conciliating manner and the generous warmth of his expressions, respect rarely before experienced, admiration, and love--he had touched my rocky heart with his magic power, and the stream of affection gushed forth, imperishable and pure.
In the evening we parted; he pressed my hand: "We shall meet again; come to me to-morrow.
I could not rest.
I sought the hills; a west wind swept them, and the stars glittered above.
I ran on, careless of outward objects, but trying to master the struggling spirit within me by means of bodily fatigue.
Not to be strong of limb, hard of heart, ferocious, and daring; but kind compassionate and soft.
As this gust of passion passed from me, I felt more composed.
I lay on the ground, and giving the reins to my thoughts, repassed in my mind my former life; and began, fold by fold, to unwind the many errors of my heart, and to discover how brutish, savage, and worthless I had hitherto been.
I could not however at that time feel remorse, for methought I was born anew; my soul threw off the burthen of past sin, to commence a new career in innocence and love.
Nothing harsh or rough remained to jar with the soft feelings which the transactions of the day had inspired; I was as a child lisping its devotions after its mother, and my plastic soul was remoulded by a master hand, which I neither desired nor was able to resist.
This was the first commencement of my friendship with Adrian, and I must commemorate this day as the most fortunate of my life.
I now began to be human.
I was admitted within that sacred boundary which divides the intellectual and moral nature of man from that which characterizes animals.
My best feelings were called into play to give fitting responses to the generosity, wisdom, and amenity of my new friend.
He, with a noble goodness all his own, took infinite delight in bestowing to prodigality the treasures of his mind and fortune on the long-neglected son of his father's friend, the offspring of that gifted being whose excellencies and talents he had heard commemorated from infancy.
After his abdication the late king had please click for source from the sphere of politics, yet his domestic circle afforded him small content.
The ex-queen had none of the virtues of domestic life, and those of courage and daring which she possessed were rendered null by the secession of her husband: she despised him, and did not care to conceal her sentiments.
The king had, in compliance with her exactions, cast off his old friends, but he had acquired no new ones under her guidance.
In this dearth of sympathy, he had recourse to his almost infant son; and the early development of talent and sensibility rendered Adrian no unfitting depository of his father's confidence.
He was never weary of listening to the latter's often repeated accounts of old times, in which my father had played a distinguished part; his keen remarks were repeated to the boy, and remembered by him; his wit, his fascinations, his very faults were hallowed by the regret of affection; his loss was sincerely deplored.
Even the queen's dislike of the favourite was ineffectual to deprive him of his son's admiration: it was bitter, sarcastic, contemptuous--but as she bestowed her heavy censure alike on his virtues as his errors, on his devoted friendship and his ill-bestowed loves, on his disinterestedness and his prodigality, on his pre-possessing grace of manner, and the facility with which he yielded to temptation, her double shot proved too heavy, and fell short of the mark.
Nor did her angry dislike prevent Adrian from imaging my father, as he had said, the type of all that was gallant, amiable, and fascinating in man.
It was not strange therefore, that when he heard of the existence of the offspring of this celebrated person, he should have formed the plan of bestowing on them all the advantages his rank made him rich to afford.
When he found me a vagabond shepherd of the hills, a poacher, an unlettered savage, still his kindness did not fail.
In addition to the opinion he entertained that his father was to a degree culpable of neglect towards us, and that he was bound to every possible reparation, he was pleased to say that under all my ruggedness there glimmered forth an elevation of spirit, which could be distinguished from mere animal courage, and that I inherited a similarity of countenance to my father, which gave proof that all his virtues and talents had not died with him.
Whatever those might be which descended to me, my noble young friend resolved should not be lost for want of culture.
Acting upon this plan in our subsequent intercourse, he led me to wish to participate in that cultivation which graced his own intellect.
My active mind, when once it seized upon this new idea, fastened on it with extreme avidity.
At first it was the great object of my ambition to rival the merits of my father, and render myself worthy of the friendship of Adrian.
But curiosity soon awoke, and an earnest love of knowledge, which caused me to pass days and nights in reading and study.
I was already well acquainted with what I may term the panorama of nature, the change of seasons, and the various appearances of heaven and earth.
But I was at once startled and enchanted by my sudden extension of vision, when the curtain, which had been drawn before the intellectual world, was withdrawn, and I saw the universe, not only as it presented itself to my outward senses, but as it had appeared to the wisest among men.
Poetry and its creations, philosophy and its researches and classifications, alike awoke the sleeping ideas in my mind, and gave me new ones.
I felt as the sailor, who from the topmast first discovered the shore of America; and like him I hastened to tell my companions of my discoveries in unknown regions.
But I was unable to excite in any breast the same craving appetite for knowledge that existed in mine.
Even Perdita was unable to understand me.
I had lived in what is generally called the world of reality, and it was awakening to a new country to find that there was a deeper meaning in all I saw, besides that which my eyes conveyed to gambling cruise in bermuda ship />The visionary Perdita beheld in all this only a new gloss upon an old reading, and her own was sufficiently inexhaustible to content her.
She listened to me as she had done to the narration of my adventures, and sometimes took an interest in this species of information; but she did not, as I did, look on it as an integral part of her being, which having obtained, I could no more put off than the universal sense of touch.
We both agreed in loving Adrian: although she not having yet escaped from childhood could not appreciate as I did the extent of his merits, or feel the same sympathy in his pursuits and opinions.
I was for ever with him.
There was a sensibility and sweetness in his disposition, that gave a tender and unearthly tone to our converse.
Then he was gay as a lark carolling from its skiey tower, soaring in thought as an eagle, innocent as the mild-eyed dove.
He could dispel the seriousness of Perdita, and take the sting from the torturing activity of my nature.
I looked back to my restless desires and painful struggles with my fellow beings as to a troubled dream, and felt myself as much changed as if I had transmigrated into another form, whose fresh sensorium and mechanism of nerves had altered the reflection of the apparent universe in the mirror of mind.
But it was not so; I was the same in strength, in earnest craving for sympathy, in my yearning for active exertion.
My manly virtues did not desert me, for the witch Urania spared the locks of Sampson, while he reposed at her feet; but all was softened and humanized.
Nor did Adrian instruct me only in the cold truths of history and philosophy.
At the same time that he taught me by their means to subdue my own reckless and uncultured spirit, he opened to my view the living page of his own heart, and gave me to feel and understand its wondrous character.
The ex-queen of England had, even during infancy, endeavoured to implant daring and ambitious designs in the mind of her son.
She saw that he was endowed with genius and surpassing talent; these she cultivated for the sake of afterwards using them for the furtherance of her own views.
She encouraged his craving for knowledge and his impetuous courage; she even tolerated his tameless love of freedom, under the hope that this would, as is too often the case, lead to a passion for command.
She endeavoured to bring him up in a sense of resentment towards, and a desire to revenge himself upon, those who had been instrumental in bringing about his father's abdication.
In this she did not succeed.
The accounts furnished him, however distorted, of a great and wise nation asserting its right to govern itself, excited his admiration: in early days he became a republican from principle.
Still his mother did not despair.
To the love of rule and haughty pride of birth she added determined ambition, patience, and self-control.
She devoted herself to the study of her son's disposition.
By the application of praise, censure, and exhortation, she tried to seek and strike the fitting chords; and though the melody that followed her touch seemed discord article source her, she built her hopes on his talents, and felt sure that she would at last win him.
The kind of banishment he now experienced arose from other causes.
The ex-queen had also a daughter, now age in minnesota limit gambling years of age; his fairy sister, Adrian was wont to call her; a lovely, animated, little thing, all sensibility and truth.
With these, her children, the noble widow constantly resided at Windsor; and admitted no visitors, except her own partizans, article source from her native Germany, and a few of the foreign ministers.
Among these, and highly distinguished by her, was Prince Zaimi, ambassador to England from the free States of Greece; and his daughter, the young Princess Evadne, passed much of her time at Windsor Castle.
In company with this sprightly and clever Greek girl, the Countess would relax from her usual state.
Her views with regard to her own children, placed all her words and actions relative to them under restraint: but Evadne was a plaything she could in no way fear; nor were her talents and vivacity slight alleviations to the monotony of the Countess's life.
Evadne was https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/louisiana-gambling-vacations.html years of age.
Although they spent much time together at Windsor, the extreme youth of Adrian prevented any suspicion as to the nature of their intercourse.
But he was ardent and tender of heart beyond the common nature of man, and had already learnt to love, while the beauteous Greek smiled benignantly on the boy.
It was strange to me, who, though older than Adrian, had never loved, to witness the whole heart's sacrifice of my friend.
There was neither jealousy, inquietude, or mistrust in his sentiment; it was devotion and faith.
His life was swallowed up in the existence of his beloved; and his heart beat only in unison with the pulsations that vivified hers.
This was the secret law of his life--he loved and was beloved.
The universe was to him a dwelling, to inhabit with his chosen one; and not either a scheme of society or an enchainment of events, that could impart to him either happiness or misery.
What, though life and the system of social intercourse were a wilderness, a tiger-haunted jungle!
Through the midst of its errors, in the depths of its savage recesses, there was a disentangled and flowery pathway, through which they might journey in safety and delight.
Their track would be like the passage of the Red Sea, which they might traverse with unwet feet, though a wall of destruction were impending on either side.
What is there in our nature that is for ever urging us on towards pain and misery?
We are not formed for enjoyment; and, however we may be attuned to the reception of pleasureable emotion, disappointment is the never-failing pilot of our life's bark, and ruthlessly carries us on to the shoals.
Who was better framed than this highly-gifted youth to love and be beloved, and to reap unalienable joy from an unblamed passion?
If his heart had slept but a few years longer, he might have been saved; but it awoke in its infancy; it had power, but no knowledge; and it was ruined, even as a too early-blowing bud is nipt by the killing frost.
I did not accuse Evadne of hypocrisy or a wish to deceive her lover; but the first letter that I saw of hers convinced me that she did not love him; it was written with elegance, and, foreigner as she was, with great command of language.
The hand-writing itself was exquisitely beautiful; there was something in her very paper and its https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/i-have-lost-so-much-money-gambling.html, which even I, who did not love, and was withal unskilled in such matters, could discern as being tasteful.
There was much kindness, gratitude, and sweetness in her expression, but no love.
Evadne was two years older than Adrian; and who, at eighteen, ever loved one so much their junior?
I compared her placid epistles with the burning ones of Adrian.
His soul seemed to distil itself into the words he wrote; and they breathed on the paper, bearing with them a portion of the life of love, which was his life.
The very writing used to exhaust him; and he would weep over them, merely from the excess of emotion they awakened in his heart.
Adrian's soul was painted in his countenance, and concealment or deceit were at the antipodes to the dreadless frankness of his nature.
Evadne made it her earnest request that the tale of their loves should not be revealed to his mother; and after for a while contesting the point, he yielded it to her.
A vain concession; his demeanour quickly betrayed his secret to the quick eyes of the ex-queen.
With the same wary prudence that characterized her whole conduct, she concealed her discovery, but hastened to remove her son from the sphere of the attractive Greek.
He was sent to Cumberland; but the plan of correspondence between the lovers, arranged by Evadne, was effectually hidden from her.
Thus the absence of Adrian, concerted for the purpose of separating, united them in firmer bonds than ever.
To me he discoursed ceaselessly of his beloved Ionian.
Her country, its ancient annals, its late memorable struggles, were all made to partake in her glory and excellence.
He submitted to be away from her, because she commanded this submission; but for her influence, he would have declared his attachment before all England, and resisted, with unshaken constancy, his mother's opposition.
Evadne's feminine prudence perceived how useless any assertion of his resolves would be, till added years gave weight to his power.
Perhaps there was besides a lurking dislike to bind herself in the face of the world to one whom she did not love--not love, at least, with that passionate enthusiasm which her heart told her she might one day feel towards another.
He obeyed her injunctions, and passed a year in exile in Cumberland.
HAPPY, thrice happy, were the months, and weeks, and hours of that year.
Friendship, hand in hand with admiration, tenderness and respect, built a bower of delight in my heart, late https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/legal-gambling-age-in-ks.html as an untrod wild in America, as the homeless wind or herbless sea.
Insatiate thirst for knowledge, and boundless affection for Adrian, combined to keep both my heart and understanding occupied, and I was consequently happy.
What happiness is so true and unclouded, as the overflowing and talkative delight of young people.
In our boat, upon my native lake, beside the streams and the pale bordering poplars--in valley and over hill, my crook thrown aside, a nobler flock to tend than silly sheep, even a flock of new-born ideas, I read or listened to Adrian; and his discourse, whether it concerned his love or his theories for the improvement of man, alike entranced me.
Sometimes my lawless mood would return, my love of peril, my resistance to authority; but this was in his absence; under the mild sway of his dear eyes, I was obedient just click for source good as a boy of five years old, who does his mother's bidding.
After a residence of about a year at Ulswater, Adrian visited London, and https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-commission-uk-licence-holders.html back full of plans for our benefit.
You must begin life, he said: you are seventeen, and longer delay would render the necessary apprenticeship more and more irksome.
He foresaw that his own life would be one of struggle, and I must partake his labours with him.
The better to fit me for this task, we must now separate.
He found my name a good passport to preferment, and he had procured for me the situation of private secretary to the Ambassador at Vienna, where I should enter on my career under the best auspices.
In two years, I should return to my country, with a name well known and a reputation already founded.
With his usual thoughtfulness, he had provided for her independence in this situation.
How refuse the offers of this generous friend?
Thus I promised myself, as I journied towards my destination with roused and ardent expectation: expectation of the fulfilment of all that in boyhood we promise ourselves of power and enjoyment in maturity.
Methought the time was now arrived, when, childish occupations laid aside, I should enter into life.
Even in the Elysian fields, Virgil describes the souls of the happy as eager to drink of the wave which was to restore them to this mortal coil.
The young are seldom in Elysium, for their desires, outstripping possibility, leave them as poor as a moneyless debtor.
We are told by the wisest philosophers of the dangers of the world, the deceits of men, and the treason of our own hearts: but not the less fearlessly does each put off his frail bark from the port, spread the sail, and strain his oar, to attain the multitudinous streams of the sea of life.
How few in youth's prime, moor their vessels on the "golden sands," and collect the painted shells that strew them.
But all at close of day, with riven planks and rent canvas make for shore, and are either wrecked ere they reach it, or find some wave-beaten haven, some desart strand, whereon to cast themselves designs gambling tattoos die unmourned.
A truce to philosophy!
Hope, glory, love, and blameless ambition are my guides, and my soul knows no dread.
What has been, though sweet, is gone; the present is good only because it is about to change, and the to come is all my own.
Do I fear, that my heart palpitates?
Now that I am arrived at its base, my pinions are furled, the mighty stairs are before me, and step by step I must ascend the wondrous fane-- Speak!
Behold me in a new capacity.
A diplomatist: one among the pleasure-seeking society of a gay city; a youth of promise; favourite of the Ambassador.
All was strange and admirable to the shepherd of Cumberland.
With breathless amaze I entered on the gay uk gambling legal, whose actors were --the lilies glorious as Solomon, Who toil not, neither do they spin.
Soon, too soon, I entered the giddy whirl; forgetting my studious hours, and the companionship of Adrian.
Passionate desire of sympathy, and ardent pursuit for a wished-for object still characterized me.
The sight of beauty entranced me, and attractive manners in man or woman won my entire confidence.
I called it rapture, when a smile made my heart beat; and I felt the life's blood tingle in my frame, when I approached the idol which for awhile I worshipped.
The mere flow of animal spirits was Paradise, and at night's close I only desired a renewal of the intoxicating delusion.
The dazzling light of ornamented rooms; lovely forms arrayed in splendid dresses; the motions of a dance, the voluptuous tones of exquisite music, cradled my senses in one delightful dream.
And is not this in its kind happiness?
I appeal to moralists and sages.
I ask if in the calm of their measured reveries, if in the deep meditations which fill their hours, they feel the extasy of a youthful tyro in the school of pleasure?
Can the calm beams of their heaven-seeking eyes equal the flashes of mingling passion which blind his, or does the influence of cold philosophy steep their soul in a joy equal to his, engaged In this dear work of youthful revelry.
But in please click for source, neither the lonely meditations of the hermit, nor the tumultuous raptures of the reveller, are capable of satisfying man's heart.
From the one we gather unquiet speculation, from the other satiety.
The mind flags beneath the weight of thought, and droops in the heartless intercourse of those whose sole aim is amusement.
There is no fruition in their vacant kindness, and sharp rocks lurk beneath the smiling ripples of these shallow waters.
Thus I felt, when disappointment, weariness, and solitude drove me back upon my heart, to gather thence the joy of which it had become barren.
My flagging spirits asked for something to speak to the affections; and not finding it, I drooped.
Thus, notwithstanding the thoughtless delight that waited on its commencement, the impression I have of my life at Vienna is melancholy.
Goethe has said, that in youth we cannot be happy unless we love.
I did not love; but I was devoured by a restless wish to be something to others.
I became the website i a how gambling create do of ingratitude and cold coquetry--then I desponded, and imagined that my discontent gave me a right to hate the world.
I receded to solitude; I had recourse to my books, and my desire again to enjoy the society of Adrian became a burning thirst.
Emulation, that in its excess almost assumed the venomous properties of envy, gave a sting to these feelings.
At this period the name and exploits of one of my countrymen filled the world with admiration.
Relations of what he had done, conjectures concerning his future actions, were the never-failing topics of the hour.
I was not angry on my own account, but I felt as if the praises which this idol received were leaves torn from laurels destined for Adrian.
But I must enter into some account of this darling of fame--this favourite of the wonder-loving world.
Lord Raymond was the sole remnant of a noble but impoverished family.
From early youth he had considered his pedigree with complacency, and bitterly lamented his want of wealth.
His first wish was aggrandisement; and the means that led towards this end were secondary considerations.
Haughty, yet trembling to every demonstration of respect; ambitious, but too proud to shew his ambition; willing to achieve honour, yet a votary of pleasure,-- he entered upon life.
He was met on the threshold by some insult, real or imaginary; some repulse, where he least expected it; some disappointment, hard for his pride to bear.
He writhed beneath an injury he was unable to revenge; and he quitted England with a vow not to return, till the good time should arrive, when she might feel the power of him she now despised.
He became an adventurer in the Greek wars.
His reckless courage and comprehensive genius brought him into notice.
He became the darling hero of this rising people.
His foreign birth, and he refused to throw off his allegiance to his native country, alone prevented him from filling the first offices in the state.
But, though others might rank higher in title and ceremony, Lord Raymond held a station above and beyond all this.
He led the Greek armies to victory; their triumphs were all his own.
When he appeared, whole towns poured forth their population to meet him; new songs were adapted to their national airs, whose themes were his glory, valour, and munificence.
A truce was concluded between the Greeks and Turks.
At the same time, Lord Raymond, by some unlooked-for chance, became the possessor of an immense fortune in England, whither he returned, crowned with glory, to receive the meed of honour and distinction before denied to his pretensions.
His proud heart rebelled against this change.
In what was the despised Raymond not the same?
If the acquisition of power in the shape of wealth caused this alteration, that power should they feel as an iron yoke.
Power therefore was the aim of all his endeavours; aggrandizement the mark at which he for ever shot.
In open ambition or close intrigue, his end was the same--to attain the first station in his own country.
This account filled me with curiosity.
The events that in succession followed his return to England, gave me keener feelings.
Among his other advantages, Lord Raymond was supremely handsome; every one admired him; of women he was the idol.
He was courteous, honey-tongued--an adept in fascinating arts.
What could not this man achieve in the busy English world?
Change succeeded to change; the entire history did not reach me; for Adrian had ceased to write, and Perdita was a laconic correspondent.
The rumour went that Adrian had become--how write the fatal word--mad: that Lord Raymond was the favourite of the ex-queen, her daughter's destined husband.
Nay, more, that this aspiring noble revived the claim of the house of Windsor to the crown, and that, on the event of Adrian's incurable disorder and his marriage with the sister, the brow of the ambitious Raymond might be encircled with the magic ring of regality.
Such a tale filled the trumpet of many voiced fame; such a tale rendered my longer stay at Vienna, away from the friend of my youth, intolerable.
Now I must fulfil my vow; now range myself at his side, and be his ally and support till death.
Farewell to courtly pleasure; to politic intrigue; to the maze of passion and folly!
Native England, receive thy child!
A voice most irresistible, a power omnipotent, drew me thither.
After an absence of two years I landed on its shores, not daring to make any inquiries, fearful of every remark.
My first visit would be to my sister, who inhabited a little cottage, a part of Adrian's gift, on the borders of Windsor Forest.
From her I should learn the truth concerning our protector; I should hear why she had withdrawn from the protection of the Princess Evadne, and be instructed as to the influence which this overtopping and towering Raymond exercised over the fortunes of my friend.
I had never before been in the neighbourhood of Windsor; the fertility and beauty of the country around now struck me with admiration, which encreased as I approached the antique wood.
The ruins of majestic oaks which had grown, flourished, and decayed during the progress of centuries, marked where the limits of the forest once reached, while the shattered palings and neglected underwood shewed that this part was deserted for the younger plantations, which owed their birth to the beginning of the nineteenth century, and now stood in the pride of maturity.
Perdita's humble dwelling was situated on the skirts of the most ancient portion; before it was stretched Bishopgate Heath, which towards the east appeared interminable, and was bounded to the west by Chapel Wood and the grove of Virginia Water.
Behind, the cottage was shadowed by the venerable fathers of the forest, under which the deer came to graze, and which for the most part hollow and decayed, formed fantastic groups that contrasted with the regular beauty of the younger trees.
These, the offspring of a later period, stood erect and seemed ready to advance fearlessly into coming time; while those out worn stragglers, blasted and broke, clung to each other, their weak boughs sighing as the wind buffetted them--a weather-beaten crew.
A light railing surrounded the garden of the cottage, which, low-roofed, seemed to submit to the majesty of nature, and cower amidst the venerable remains of forgotten time.
Flowers, the children of the spring, adorned her garden and casements; in the midst of lowliness there was an air of elegance which spoke the graceful taste of the inmate.
With a beating heart I entered the enclosure; as I stood at the entrance, I heard her voice, melodious as it had ever been, which before I saw her assured me of her welfare.
A moment more and Perdita appeared; she stood before me in the fresh bloom of youthful womanhood, different from and yet the same as the mountain girl I had left.
Her eyes could not be deeper than they were in childhood, nor her countenance more expressive; but the expression was changed and improved; intelligence sat on her brow; when she smiled her face was embellished learn more here the softest sensibility, and her low, modulated voice seemed tuned by love.
Her person was formed in the most feminine proportions; she was not tall, but her mountain life had given freedom to her motions, so that her light step scarce made her foot-fall heard as she tript across the hall to meet me.
When we had parted, I had clasped her to my bosom with unrestrained warmth; we met again, and new feelings were awakened; when each beheld the other, childhood passed, as full grown actors on this changeful scene.
The pause was but for a moment; the flood of association and natural feeling which had been checked, again rushed in full tide upon our hearts, and with tenderest emotion we were swiftly locked in each other's embrace.
This burst of passionate feeling over, with calmed thoughts we sat together, talking of the past and present.
I alluded to the coldness of her letters; but the few minutes we had spent together sufficiently explained the origin of this.
New feelings had arisen within her, which she was unable to express in writing to one whom she had only known in childhood; but we saw each other again, and our intimacy was renewed as if nothing had intervened to check it.
I detailed the incidents of my sojourn abroad, and then questioned her as to the changes that had taken place at home, the causes of Adrian's absence, and her secluded life.
The tears that suffused my sister's eyes when I mentioned our friend, and her heightened colour seemed to vouch for the truth of the reports that had reached me.
But their import was too terrible for me to give instant credit to my suspicion.
Was there indeed anarchy in the sublime universe of Adrian's thoughts, did madness scatter the well-appointed legions, and was he no longer the lord of his own soul?
Beloved friend, this ill world was no clime for your gentle spirit; you delivered up its governance to false humanity, which stript it of its leaves ere winter-time, and laid bare its quivering life to the evil ministration of roughest winds.
Have those gentle eyes, those "channels of the soul" lost their meaning, or sc gambling they only in their glare disclose the horrible tale of its aberrations?
Does that voice no longer "discourse excellent music?
I veil my eyes in terror of the change, and gushing tears bear witness to my sympathy for this unimaginable ruin.
In obedience to my request Perdita detailed the melancholy circumstances that led to this event.
The frank and unsuspicious mind of Adrian, gifted as it was by every natural grace, endowed with transcendant powers of intellect, unblemished https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/gambling-addiction-stories-ireland.html the shadow of defect unless his dreadless independence of thought was to be construed into onewas devoted, even as a victim to sacrifice, to his love for Evadne.
He entrusted to her keeping the treasures of his soul, his aspirations after excellence, and his plans for the improvement of mankind.
As manhood dawned upon him, his schemes and theories, far from being changed by personal and prudential motives, acquired new strength from the powers he felt arise within him; and his love for Evadne became deep-rooted, as he each day became more certain that the path he pursued was full of difficulty, and that he must seek his reward, not in the applause or gratitude of his fellow creatures, hardly in the success of his plans, but in the approbation of his own heart, and in her love and sympathy, which was to lighten every toil and recompence every sacrifice.
In solitude, and through many wanderings afar from the haunts of men, he matured his views for the reform of the English government, and the improvement of the people.
It would have been well if he had concealed his sentiments, until he had come into possession of the power which would secure their practical development.
But he was impatient of the years that must intervene, he was frank of heart and fearless.
He gave not only a brief denial to his mother's schemes, but published his intention of using his influence to diminish the power of the aristocracy, to effect a greater equalization of wealth and privilege, and to introduce a perfect system of republican government into England.
At first his mother treated his theories as the wild ravings of inexperience.
But they were so systematically arranged, and his arguments so well supported, that though still in appearance incredulous, she began to fear him.
She tried to reason with him, and finding him inflexible, learned to hate him.
Strange to say, this feeling was infectious.
His enthusiasm for good which did not exist; his contempt for the sacredness of authority; his ardour and imprudence were all at the antipodes of the usual routine of life; the worldly feared him; the young and inexperienced did not understand the lofty severity of his moral views, and disliked him as a being different from themselves.
Evadne entered but coldly into his systems.
She thought he did well to assert his own will, but she wished that will to have been more intelligible to the multitude.
She had none of the spirit of a martyr, and did not incline to share the shame and defeat of a fallen patriot.
She was aware of the purity of his motives, the generosity of his disposition, his true and ardent attachment to her; and she entertained a great affection for him.
He repaid this spirit of kindness with the fondest gratitude, and made her the treasure-house of all his hopes.
At this time Lord Raymond returned from Greece.
No two persons could be more opposite than Adrian and he.
With all the incongruities of his character, Raymond was emphatically a man of the world.
His passions were violent; as these often obtained the mastery over him, he could not always square his conduct to the obvious line of self-interest, but self-gratification at least was the paramount object with him.
He looked on the structure of society as but a part of the machinery which supported the web on which his life was traced.
The earth was spread out as an highway for him; the heavens built up as a canopy for him.
Adrian felt that he made a part of a great whole.
He owned affinity not only with mankind, but all nature was akin to him; the mountains and sky were his friends; the winds of heaven and the offspring of earth his playmates; while he the focus only of this mighty mirror, felt his life mingle with the universe of existence.
His soul was sympathy, and dedicated to the worship of beauty and excellence.
Adrian and Raymond now came into contact, and a spirit of aversion rose between them.
Adrian despised the narrow views of the politician, and Raymond held in supreme contempt the benevolent visions of the philanthropist.
With the coming of Raymond was formed the storm that laid waste at one fell blow the gardens of delight and sheltered paths which Adrian fancied that he had secured to himself, as a refuge from defeat and contumely.
Raymond, the deliverer of Greece, the graceful soldier, who bore in his mien a tinge of all that, peculiar to her native clime, Evadne cherished as most dear-- Raymond was loved by Evadne.
Overpowered by her new sensations, she did not pause to examine them, or to regulate her conduct by any sentiments except the tyrannical one which suddenly usurped the empire of her heart.
She yielded to its influence, and the too natural consequence in a mind unattuned to soft emotions was, that the attentions of Adrian became distasteful to her.
She grew capricious; her gentle conduct towards him was exchanged for asperity and repulsive coldness.
When she perceived the wild or pathetic appeal of his expressive countenance, she would relent, and for a while resume her ancient kindness.
But these fluctuations shook to its depths the soul of the sensitive youth; he no longer deemed the world subject to him, because he possessed Evadne's love; he felt in every nerve that the dire storms of the mental universe were about click at this page attack his fragile being, which quivered at the expectation of its advent.
Perdita, who then resided with Evadne, saw the torture that Adrian endured.
She loved him as a kind elder brother; a relation to guide, protect, and instruct her, without the too frequent tyranny of parental authority.
She adored his virtues, and with mixed contempt and indignation she saw Evadne pile drear sorrow on his head, for the sake of one who hardly marked her.
In his solitary despair Adrian would often seek my sister, and in covered terms express his misery, while fortitude and agony divided the throne of his mind.
Anger made no part of his emotion.
With whom should he be angry?
Not with Raymond, who was unconscious of the misery he occasioned; not with Evadne, for her his soul wept tears of blood--poor, mistaken girl, slave not tyrant was she, and amidst his own anguish he grieved for her future destiny.
Once a writing of his fell into Perdita's hands; it was blotted with tears--well might any blot it with the like-- "Life"--it began thus--"is not the thing romance writers describe it; going through the measures of a dance, and after various evolutions arriving at a conclusion, when the dancers may sit down and repose.
While there is life there is action and change.
We go on, each thought linked to the one which was its parent, each act to a previous act.
No joy or sorrow dies barren of progeny, which for ever generated and generating, weaves the chain that make our life: Un dia llama a otro dia y ass i llama, y encadena llanto a llanto, y pena a pena.
Truly disappointment is the guardian deity of human life; she sits at the threshold of unborn time, and marshals the events as they come forth.
Once my heart sat lightly in my bosom; all the beauty of the world was doubly beautiful, irradiated by the sun-light shed from my own soul.
O wherefore are love and ruin for ever joined in this our mortal dream?
So that when we make our hearts a lair for that gently seeming beast, its companion enters with it, and pitilessly lays waste what might have been an home and a shelter.
His manners grew wild; he was sometimes ferocious, sometimes absorbed in speechless melancholy.
Suddenly Evadne quitted London for Paris; he followed, and overtook her when the vessel was about to sail; none knew what passed between them, but Perdita had never seen him since; he lived in seclusion, no one knew where, attended by such persons as his mother selected for that purpose.
THE next day Lord Raymond called at Perdita's cottage, on his way to Windsor Castle.
My sister's heightened colour and sparkling eyes half revealed her secret to me.
He was perfectly self-possessed; he accosted us both with courtesy, seemed immediately to enter into our feelings, and to make one with us.
I scanned his physiognomy, which varied as he spoke, yet was beautiful in every change.
The usual expression of his eyes was soft, though at times he could make them even glare with ferocity; his complexion was colourless; and every trait spoke predominate self-will; his smile was pleasing, though disdain too often curled his lips--lips which to female eyes were the very throne of beauty and love.
His voice, usually gentle, often startled you by a sharp discordant note, which shewed that his usual low tone was rather the work of study than nature.
Thus full of contradictions, unbending yet haughty, gentle yet fierce, tender and again neglectful, he by some strange art found easy entrance to the admiration and affection of pity, gambling casinos near lubbock texas consider now caressing and now tyrannizing over them according to his mood, but in every change a despot.
At the present time Raymond evidently wished to appear amiable.
Wit, hilarity, and deep observation were mingled in his talk, rendering every sentence that he uttered as a flash of light.
He soon conquered my latent distaste; I endeavoured to watch him and Perdita, and to keep in mind every thing I had heard to his disadvantage.
But all appeared so ingenuous, and all was so fascinating, that I forgot everything except the pleasure his society afforded me.
Under the idea of initiating me in the scene of English politics and society, of which I was soon to become a part, he narrated a number of anecdotes, and sketched many characters; his discourse, rich and varied, flowed on, pervading all my senses with pleasure.
But for one thing he would have been completely triumphant.
He alluded to Adrian, and spoke of him with that disparagement that the worldly wise always attach to enthusiasm.
He perceived the cloud gathering, and tried https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/allen-carr-no-more-gambling.html dissipate it; but the strength of my feelings would not permit me to pass thus lightly over this sacred subject; so I said emphatically, "Permit me to remark, that I am devotedly attached to the Earl of Windsor; he is my best friend and benefactor.
I reverence his goodness, I accord with his opinions, and bitterly lament his present, and I trust temporary, illness.
That illness, from its peculiarity, makes it painful to me beyond words to hear him mentioned, unless in terms of respect and affection.
I saw that in his heart he despised those dedicated to any but worldly idols.
Would I could dream!
Even the ghost of friendship has departed, and love"----He broke off; nor could I guess whether the disdain that curled his lip was directed against the passion, or against himself for being its slave.
This account may be taken as a sample of my intercourse with Lord Raymond.
I became intimate with him, and each day afforded me occasion to admire more and more his powerful and versatile talents, that together with his eloquence, which was graceful and witty, and his wealth now immense, caused him to be feared, loved, and hated beyond any other man in England.
My descent, which claimed interest, if not respect, my former connection with Adrian, the favour of the ambassador, whose secretary I had been, and now my intimacy with Lord Raymond, gave me easy access to the fashionable and political circles of England.
To my inexperience we at first appeared on the eve of a is gambling drug war; each party was violent, acrimonious, and unyielding.
Parliament was divided by three factions, aristocrats, democrats, and royalists.
After Adrian's declared predeliction to the republican form of government, the latter party had nearly died away, chiefless, guideless; but, when Lord Raymond came forward as its leader, it revived with redoubled force.
Some were royalists from prejudice and ancient affection, and there were many moderately inclined who feared alike the capricious tyranny of the popular party, and the unbending despotism of the aristocrats.
More than a third of the members ranged themselves under Raymond, and their number was perpetually encreasing.
The aristocrats built their hopes on their preponderant wealth and influence; the reformers on the force of the nation itself; the debates were violent, more violent the discourses held by each knot of politicians as they assembled to arrange their measures.
Opprobrious epithets were bandied about, resistance even to the death threatened; meetings of the populace disturbed the quiet order of the country; except in war, how could all this end?
Even as the destructive flames were ready to break forth, I saw them shrink back; allayed by the absence of the military, by the aversion entertained by every one to any violence, save that of speech, and by the cordial politeness and even friendship of the hostile leaders when they met in private society.
I was from a thousand motives induced to attend minutely to the course of events, and watch each turn with intense anxiety.
I could not but perceive that Perdita loved Raymond; methought also that he regarded the fair daughter of Verney with admiration and tenderness.
Yet I knew that he was urging forward his marriage with the presumptive heiress of the Earldom of Windsor, with keen expectation of the advantages that would thence accrue to him.
All the ex-queen's friends were his friends; no week passed that he did not hold consultations with her at Windsor.
I had never seen the sister of Adrian.
I had heard that she was lovely, amiable, and fascinating.
Wherefore should I see her?
There are times when we have an indefinable sentiment of impending change for better or for worse, to arise from an event; and, be it for better or for worse, we fear the change, and shun the event.
For this reason I avoided this high-born damsel.
To me she was everything and nothing; her very name mentioned by another made me start and tremble; the endless discussion concerning her union with Lord Raymond was real agony to me.
Methought that, Adrian withdrawn from active life, and this beauteous Idris, a victim probably to her mother's ambitious schemes, I ought to come forward to protect her from undue influence, guard her from unhappiness, and secure to her freedom of choice, the right of every human being.
Yet how was I to do this?
She herself would disdain my interference.
Since then I must be an object of indifference or contempt to her, better, far better avoid her, nor expose myself before her and the scornful world to the chance of playing the mad game of a fond, foolish Icarus.
One day, several months after my return to England, I quitted London to visit my sister.
Her society was my chief solace and delight; and my spirits always rose at the expectation of seeing her.
Her conversation was full of pointed remark and discernment; in her pleasant alcove, redolent with sweetest flowers, adorned by magnificent casts, antique vases, and copies of the finest pictures of Raphael, Correggio, and Claude, painted by herself, I fancied myself in a fairy retreat untainted by and inaccessible to the noisy contentions of politicians and the frivolous pursuits of fashion.
On this occasion, my sister was not alone; nor could I fail to recognise her companion: it was Idris, the till now unseen object of my mad idolatry.
In what fitting terms of wonder and delight, in what choice expression and soft flow of language, can I usher in the loveliest, wisest, best?
How in poor assemblage of words convey the halo of glory that surrounded her, the thousand graces that waited unwearied on her.
The first thing that struck you on beholding that charming countenance was its perfect goodness and frankness; candour sat upon her brow, simplicity in her eyes, heavenly benignity in her smile.
Her tall slim figure bent gracefully as a poplar to the breezy west, and click the following article gait, goddess-like, was as that of a winged angel new alit from heaven's high floor; the pearly fairness of her complexion was stained by a pure suffusion; her voice resembled the low, subdued tenor of a flute.
It is easiest perhaps to describe by contrast.
I have detailed the perfections of my sister; and yet she was utterly unlike Idris.
Perdita, even where she loved, was reserved and timid; Idris was frank and confiding.
The one recoiled to solitude, that she might there entrench herself from disappointment and injury; the other walked forth in open day, believing that none would harm her.
Wordsworth has compared a beloved female to two fair objects in nature; but his lines always appeared to me rather a contrast than a similitude: A violet by a mossy stone Half hidden from the eye, Fair as a star when only one Is shining in the sky.
Such a violet are washington gambling license renewal commit sweet Perdita, trembling to entrust herself to the very air, cowering from observation, yet betrayed by her excellences; and repaying with a thousand graces the labour of those who sought her in her lonely bye-path.
Idris was as the star, set in single splendour in the dim anadem of balmy evening; ready to enlighten and delight the subject world, shielded herself from every taint by her unimagined distance from all that was not like herself akin to heaven.
I found this vision of beauty in Perdita's alcove, in earnest conversation with its inmate.
When my sister saw me, she rose, and taking my hand, said, "He is here, even at gambling addiction disorder wish; this is Lionel, my brother.
Verney, you will acknowledge this tie, and as my brother's friend, I feel that I may trust you.
To you alone do I dare speak; I have heard you commended by impartial spectators; you are my brother's friends, therefore you must be mine.
What can I say?
Doubtless you have both heard the current tale; perhaps believe the slander; but he is not mad!
Were an angel from the foot of God's throne to assert it, never, never would I believe it.
He is wronged, betrayed, imprisoned--save him!
Verney, you must do this; seek him out in whatever part of the island he is immured; find him, rescue him from his persecutors, restore him to himself, to me--on the wide earth I have none to love but only him!
We then conversed on the plan I should pursue, and discussed the probable means of discovering his residence.
While we were in earnest discourse, Lord Raymond entered unannounced: I saw Perdita tremble and grow deadly pale, and the cheeks of Idris glow with purest blushes.
He must have been astonished at our conclave, disturbed by it I should have thought; but nothing of this appeared; he saluted my companions, and addressed me with a cordial greeting.
Idris appeared suspended for a moment, and then with extreme sweetness, she said, "Lord Raymond, I confide in your goodness and honour.
It is certainly best not to compromise oneself by any concealment.
Whether you https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/latest-in-australian-gambling-news.html me or not, rely on click at this page doing my utmost to further your wishes, whatever they may be.
Lord Raymond requested permission to accompany her to Windsor Castle, to which she consented, and they quitted the cottage together.
My sister and I were left--truly like two fools, who fancied that they had obtained a golden treasure, till daylight shewed it to be lead--two silly, luckless flies, who had played in sunbeams and click the following article caught in a spider's web.
I leaned against the casement, and watched those two glorious creatures, till they disappeared in the forest-glades; and then I turned.
Perdita had not moved; her eyes fixed on the ground, her cheeks pale, her very lips white, motionless and rigid, every feature stamped by woe, she sat.
Half frightened, I would have taken her hand; but she shudderingly withdrew it, and strove to collect herself.
I entreated her to speak to me: "Not now," she replied, "nor do you speak to me, my dear Lionel; you can say nothing, for you know nothing.
I will see you to-morrow; in the meantime, adieu!
Will you tell him that he must excuse me to-day, for I am not well.
I will see him to-morrow if he wishes it, and you also.
You had better return to London with him; you can there make the enquiries agreed upon, concerning the Earl of Windsor and visit me again to-morrow, before you proceed on your journey--till then, farewell!
I gave my assent to her request; and she left me.
I felt as if, from the order of the systematic world, I had plunged into chaos, obscure, contrary, unintelligible.
That Raymond should marry Idris was more than ever intolerable; yet my passion, though a giant from its birth, was too strange, wild, and impracticable, for me to feel at once the misery I perceived in Perdita.
How should I act?
She had not confided in me; I could not demand an explanation from Raymond without the hazard of betraying what was perhaps her most treasured secret.
I would obtain the truth from her the following day--in the mean time--But, while I was occupied by multiplying reflections, Lord Raymond returned.
He asked for my sister; and I delivered her message.
After musing on it for a moment, he asked me if I were about to return to London, and if I would accompany him: I consented.
He was full of thought, and remained silent during a considerable part of our ride; at length he said, "I must apologize to you for my abstraction; the truth is, Ryland's motion comes on to-night, and I am considering my reply.
This attack was directed against Raymond and his machinations for the restoration of the monarchy.
Raymond asked me if I would accompany him to the House that evening.
I remembered my pursuit for intelligence please click for source Adrian; and, knowing that my time would be fully occupied, I excused myself.
You are going to make enquiries concerning the Earl of Windsor.
I can answer them at once, he is at the Duke of Athol's seat at Dunkeld.
On the first approach of his disorder, he travelled about from one place to another; until, arriving at that romantic seclusion he refused to quit it, and we made arrangements with the Duke for his continuing there.
But first witness, I beseech you, the result of this night's contest, and the triumph I am about to achieve, if I may so call it, while I fear that victory is to me defeat.
What can I do?
My dearest hopes appear to be near their fulfilment.
The ex-queen gives me Idris; Adrian is totally unfitted to succeed to the earldom, and that earldom in my hands becomes a kingdom.
By the reigning God it is true; the paltry earldom of Windsor shall no longer content him, who will inherit the rights which must for ever appertain to the person who possesses it.
The Countess can never forget that she has been a queen, and she disdains to leave a diminished inheritance to her children; her power and my wit will rebuild the throne, and this brow will be clasped by a kingly diadem.
I asked, "Does Lady Idris love you?
So you are about to love her, but do not already?
I must steel click heart against that; expel it from its tower of strength, barricade it out: the fountain of love must cease to play, its waters be dried up, and all passionate thoughts attendant on it die--that is to say, the love which would rule me, not that which I rule.
Idris is a gentle, pretty, sweet little girl; it is impossible not to have an affection for her, and I have a very sincere one; only do not speak of love --love, the tyrant and the tyrant-queller; love, until now my conqueror, now my slave; the hungry fire, the untameable beast, the fanged snake--no--no--I will have nothing to do with that love.
Tell me, Lionel, do you consent that I should marry this young lady?
I replied in a calm voice--but how far from calm was the thought imaged by my still words--"Never!
I can never consent that Lady Idris should be united to one who does not love her.
I would not marry a reigning sovereign, were I not sure that her heart was free.
Were not the mightiest men of the olden times kings?
Alexander was a king; Solomon, the wisest of men, was a king; Napoleon was a king; Caesar died in his attempt to become one, and Cromwell, the puritan and king-killer, aspired to regality.
The father of Adrian yielded up the already broken sceptre of England; but I will rear the fallen plant, join its dismembered frame, and exalt it above all the flowers of the field.
Do not suppose that I am wicked or foolish enough to found my purposed sovereignty on a fraud, and one so easily discovered as the truth or falsehood of the Earl's insanity.
I am just come from him.
Before I decided on my marriage with Idris, I resolved to see him myself again, and to judge of the probability of his recovery.
You shall see him, and judge for yourself; although I fear this visit, useless to him, will be insufferably painful to you.
It has weighed on my spirits ever since.
Excellent and gentle as he is even in the downfall of his reason, I do not worship him as you do, but I would give all my hopes of a crown and my right hand to boot, to see him restored to himself.
To a crown, a golden gambling in anchorage alaska right now crown, I hope; and yet I dare not trust and though I dream of a crown and wake for one, ever and anon a busy devil whispers to me, that it is but a fool's cap that I seek, and that were I wise, Loss huge gambling should trample on it, and take in its stead, that which is worth all the crowns of the east and presidentships of the west.
When scorn did not inspire his mirth, when it was genuine gaiety that painted his features with a joyous expression, his beauty became super-eminent, divine.
I intend to be a warrior, a conqueror; Napoleon's name shall vail to mine; and enthusiasts, instead of visiting his rocky grave, and exalting the merits of the fallen, shall adore my majesty, and magnify my illustrious achievements.
Could I be other than all ear, to one who seemed to govern the whole earth in his grasping imagination, and who only quailed when he attempted to rule himself.
Then on his word and will depended my own happiness--the fate of all dear to me.
I endeavoured to divine the concealed meaning of his words.
Perdita's name was not mentioned; yet I could not doubt that love for her caused the vacillation of purpose that he exhibited.
And who was so worthy of love as my noble-minded sister?
Who deserved the hand of this self-exalted king more than she whose glance belonged to a queen of nations?
We went together to the House in the evening.
Raymond, while he knew that his plans and prospects were to be discussed and decided during the expected debate, was gay and careless.
An hum, like that of ten thousand hives of swarming bees, stunned us as we entered the coffee-room.
Knots of politicians were assembled with anxious brows and loud or deep voices.
The aristocratical party, the richest and most influential men in England, appeared less agitated than the others, for the question was to be discussed without their interference.
Near the fire was Ryland and his supporters.
Ryland was a man of obscure birth and of immense wealth, inherited from his father, who had been a manufacturer.
He had witnessed, when a young man, the abdication of the king, and the amalgamation of the two houses of Lords and Commons; he had sympathized with these popular encroachments, and it had been the business of his life to consolidate and encrease them.
Since then, the influence of the landed proprietors had augmented; and at first Ryland was not sorry to observe the machinations of Lord Raymond, which drew off many of his opponent's partizans.
But the thing was now going too far.
The poorer nobility hailed the return of sovereignty, as an event which would restore them to their power and rights, now lost.
The half extinct spirit of royalty roused itself in the minds of men; and they, willing slaves, self-constituted subjects, were ready to bend source necks to the yoke.
Some erect and manly spirits still remained, pillars of state; but the word republic had grown stale to the vulgar ear; and many--the event would prove whether it was a majority-- pined for the tinsel and show of royalty.
Ryland was roused to resistance; he asserted that his sufferance alone had permitted the encrease of this party; but the time for indulgence was passed, and with one motion of his arm he would sweep away the cobwebs that blinded his countrymen.
When Raymond entered the coffee-room, his presence was hailed by his friends almost with a shout.
They gathered round him, counted their numbers, and detailed the reasons why they were now to receive an addition of such and such members, who had not yet declared themselves.
Some trifling business of the House having been gone through, the leaders took their seats in the chamber; the clamour of voices continued, till Ryland arose to speak, and then the slightest whispered observation was audible.
All eyes were fixed upon him as he stood--ponderous of frame, sonorous of voice, and with a manner which, though not graceful, was impressive.
I turned from his marked, iron countenance to Raymond, whose face, veiled by a smile, would not betray his care; yet his lips quivered somewhat, and his hand clasped the bench on which he sat, with a convulsive strength that made the muscles start again.
Ryland began by praising the present state of the British empire.
He recalled past years to their memory; the miserable contentions which in the time of our fathers arose almost to civil war, the abdication of the late king, and the foundation of the republic.
He described this republic; shewed how it gave privilege to each individual in the state, to rise to consequence, and even to temporary sovereignty.
He compared the royal and republican spirit; shewed how the one tended to enslave the minds of men; while all the institutions of the other served to raise even the meanest among us to something great and good.
He shewed how England had become powerful, and its inhabitants valiant and wise, by means of the freedom they enjoyed.
As he spoke, every heart swelled with pride, and every cheek glowed with delight to remember, that each one there was English, and that each supported and contributed to the happy state of things now commemorated.
Ryland's fervour increased--his eyes lighted up--his voice assumed the tone of passion.
There was one man, he continued, who wished to alter all this, and bring us back to our days of impotence and contention:--one man, who would dare arrogate the honour which was due to all who claimed England as their birthplace, and set his name and style above the name and style of his country.
I saw at this juncture that Raymond changed colour; his eyes were withdrawn from the orator, and cast on the ground; the listeners turned from one to the other; but in the meantime the speaker's voice filled their ears--the thunder of his denunciations influenced their senses.
The very boldness of his language gave him weight; each knew that he spoke truth--a truth known, but not acknowledged.
He tore from reality the mask with which she had been clothed; and the purposes of Raymond, which before had crept around, ensnaring by stealth, now stood a hunted stag--even at bay--as all perceived who watched the irrepressible changes of his countenance.
Ryland ended by moving, that any attempt to re-erect the kingly power should be declared treason, and he a traitor who should endeavour to change the present form of government.
Cheers and loud acclamations followed the close of his speech.
After his motion had been seconded, Lord Raymond rose,--his countenance bland, his voice softly melodious, his manner soothing, his grace and sweetness came like the mild breathing of a flute, after the loud, organ-like voice of his adversary.
He rose, he said, to speak in favour of the honourable member's motion, with one slight amendment subjoined.
He was ready to go back to old times, and commemorate the contests of our fathers, and the monarch's abdication.
Nobly and greatly, he said, had the illustrious and last sovereign of England sacrificed himself to the apparent good of his country, and divested himself of a power which could only be maintained by the blood of his subjects--these subjects named so no more, these, his friends and equals, had in gratitude conferred certain favours and distinctions on him and his family for ever.
An ample estate was allotted to them, and they took the first rank among the peers of Great Britain.
Yet it might be conjectured that they had not forgotten their ancient heritage; and it was hard that his heir should suffer alike with any other pretender, if https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/how-has-gambling-affected-sports.html attempted to regain what by ancient right and inheritance belonged to him.
He did not say that he should favour such an attempt; but he did say that such an attempt would be venial; and, if the aspirant did not go so far as to declare war, and erect a standard in the kingdom, his fault ought to be regarded with an indulgent eye.
In his amendment he proposed, that an exception should be made in the bill in favour of any person who claimed the sovereign power in right of the earls of Windsor.
Nor did Raymond make an end without drawing in vivid and glowing colours, the splendour of a kingdom, in opposition to the commercial spirit of republicanism.
He asserted, that each individual under the English monarchy, was then as now, capable of attaining high rank and power--with one only exception, that of the https://tayorindustry.com/gambling/arbitrage-sports-gambling.html of chief magistrate; higher and nobler rank, than a bartering, timorous commonwealth could afford.
And for this one exception, to what did it amount?
The nature of riches and influence forcibly confined the list of candidates to a few of the wealthiest; and it was much to be feared, that the ill-humour and contention generated by this triennial struggle, would counterbalance its advantages in impartial eyes.
I can ill record the flow of language and graceful turns of expression, the wit and easy raillery that gave vigour and influence to his speech.
His manner, timid at first, became firm--his changeful face was lit up to superhuman brilliancy; his voice, various as music, was like that enchanting.
It were useless to record the debate that followed this harangue.
Party speeches were delivered, which clothed the question in cant, and veiled its simple meaning in a woven wind of words.
The motion was lost; Ryland withdrew in rage and despair; and Raymond, gay and exulting, retired to dream of his future kingdom.
IS there such a feeling as love at first sight?
And if there be, in what does its nature differ from love founded in long observation and slow growth?
Perhaps its effects are not so permanent; but they are, while they last, as violent and intense.
We walk the pathless mazes of society, vacant of joy, till we hold this clue, leading us through that labyrinth to paradise.
Our nature dim, like to an unlighted torch, sleeps in formless blank till the fire attain it; this life of life, this light to moon, and glory to the sun.
What does it matter, whether the fire be struck from flint and steel, nourished with care into a flame, slowly communicated to the dark wick, or whether swiftly the radiant power of light and warmth passes from a kindred power, and shines at once the beacon and the hope.
In the deepest fountain of my heart the pulses were stirred; around, above, beneath, the clinging Memory as a cloak enwrapt me.
In no one moment of coming time did I feel as I had done in time gone by.
The spirit of Idris hovered in the air I breathed; her eyes were ever and for ever bent on mine; her remembered smile blinded my faint gaze, and caused click to walk as one, not in eclipse, not in darkness and vacancy--but in a new and brilliant light, too novel, too dazzling for my human senses.
On every leaf, on every small division of the universe, as on the hyacinth ai is engraved was imprinted the talisman of my existence--SHE LIVES!
But the die was cast--Raymond would marry Idris.
The merry marriage bells rung in my ears; I heard the nation's gratulation which followed the union; the ambitious noble uprose with swift eagle-flight, from the lowly ground to regal supremacy--and to the love of Idris.
She did not love him; she had called me her friend; she had smiled on me; to me she had entrusted her heart's dearest hope, the welfare of Adrian.
This reflection thawed my congealing blood, and again the tide of life and love flowed impetuously onward, again to ebb as my busy thoughts changed.
The debate had ended at gambling fraud in the morning.
My soul was in tumults; I traversed the streets with eager rapidity.
Truly, I was mad that night-- love--which I have named a giant from its birth, wrestled with despair!
My heart, the field of combat, was wounded by the iron heel of the one, watered by the gushing tears of the other.
Day, hateful to me, dawned; I retreated to my lodgings--I threw myself on a couch--I slept--was it sleep?
I awoke half stupefied; I felt a heavy oppression on me, but knew not wherefore; I entered, as it were, the council-chamber of my brain, and questioned the various ministers of thought therein assembled; too soon I remembered all; too soon my limbs quivered beneath the tormenting power; soon, too soon, I knew myself a slave!
Suddenly, unannounced, Lord Raymond entered my apartment.
He came in gaily, singing the Tyrolese song of liberty; noticed me with a gracious nod, and threw himself on a sopha opposite the copy of a bust of the Apollo Belvidere.
After one or two trivial remarks, to which I sullenly replied, he suddenly cried, looking at the bust, "I am called like that victor!
Not a bad idea; the head will serve for my new coinage, and be an omen to all dutiful subjects of my future success.
Then his countenance suddenly darkened, and in that shrill tone peculiar to himself, he cried, "I fought a good battle last night; higher conquest the plains of Greece never saw me achieve.
Now I am the first man in the state, burthen of every ballad, and object of old women's mumbled devotions.
What are your meditations?
You, who fancy that you can read the human soul, as your native lake reads each crevice and just click for source of its surrounding hills--say what you think of me; king-expectant, angel or devil, which?
You do not know me, Verney; neither you, nor our audience of last night, nor does universal England know aught of me.
I stand here, it would seem, an elected king; this hand is about to grasp a sceptre; these brows feel in each nerve the coming diadem.
I appear to have strength, power, victory; standing as a dome-supporting column stands; and I am--a reed!
I have ambition, and that attains its aim; my nightly dreams are realized, my waking hopes fulfilled; a kingdom awaits my acceptance, my enemies are overthrown.
But here," and he struck his heart with violence, "here is the rebel, here the stumbling-block; this over-ruling heart, which I may drain of its living blood; but, while one fluttering pulsation remains, I am its slave.
I was still smarting from my own disappointment; yet this scene oppressed me even to terror, nor could I interrupt his access of passion.
It subsided at length; and, throwing himself on the couch, he remained silent and motionless, except that his changeful features shewed a strong internal conflict.
At last he rose, and said in his usual tone of voice, "The time grows on us, Verney, I must away.
Let me not forget my chiefest errand here.
Will you accompany me to Windsor to-morrow?
You will not be dishonoured by my society, and as this is probably the last service, or disservice you can do me, will you grant my request?
click the following article I thought--Yes, I will witness the last scene of the drama.
Beside which, his mien conquered me, and an affectionate sentiment towards him, again filled my heart--I bade him command me.
Left to myself, I strove with painful intensity to divine the motive of his request and foresee the events of the coming day.
The hours passed on unperceived; my head ached with thought, the nerves seemed teeming with the over full fraught--I clasped my burning brow, as if my fevered hand could medicine its pain.
I was punctual to the appointed hour on the following day, and found Lord Raymond waiting for me.
We got into his carriage, and proceeded towards Windsor.
I had tutored myself, and was resolved by no outward sign to disclose my internal agitation.
He spoke well, very well; such an harangue would have succeeded better addressed to me singly, than to the fools and knaves assembled yonder.
Had I been alone, I should have listened to him with a wish to hear reason, but when he endeavoured to vanquish me in my own territory, with my own weapons, he put me on my mettle, and the event was such as all might have expected.
Our silence endured for some miles, till the country with open fields, or shady woods and parks, presented pleasant objects to our view.
After some observations on the scenery and seats, Raymond said: "Philosophers have called man a microcosm of nature, and find a reflection in the internal mind for all this machinery visibly at work around us.
This theory has often been a source of amusement to me; and many an idle hour have I spent, exercising my ingenuity in finding resemblances.
Does not Lord Bacon say that, 'the falling from a discord to a concord, which maketh great sweetness in music, hath an agreement with the affections, which are re-integrated to the better after some dislikes?
Our virtues are the quick-sands, which shew themselves at calm and low water; but let the waves arise and the winds buffet them, and the poor devil whose hope was in their durability, finds them sink from under him.
The fashions of the world, its exigencies, educations and pursuits, are winds to drive our wills, like clouds all one way; but let a thunderstorm arise in the shape of love, hate, or ambition, and the rack goes backward, stemming the opposing air in triumph.
I find myself, for one, as a stringed instrument with chords and stops--but I have no power to turn the pegs, or pitch my thoughts to a higher or lower key.
I cannot set my heart to a particular tune, or run voluntary changes on my will.
We are born; we choose neither our parents, nor our station; we are educated by others, or by the world's circumstance, and this cultivation, mingling with our innate disposition, is the soil in which our desires, passions, and motives grow.
Who, when he makes a choice, says, Thus I choose, because I am necessitated?
Does he not on the contrary feel a freedom of will within him, which, though you may call it fallacious, still actuates him as he decides?
Were I now to commit an act which would annihilate my hopes, and pluck the regal garment from my mortal limbs, red ghost tuileries gambling den clothe them in ordinary weeds, would this, think you, be an act of free-will on my part?
I began to divine that Idris was not the object of our journey, but that I was brought to witness the scene that was to decide the fate of Raymond--and of Perdita.
Raymond had evidently vacillated during his journey, and irresolution was marked in every gesture as we entered Perdita's cottage.
I watched him curiously, determined that, if this hesitation should continue, I would assist Perdita to overcome herself, and teach her to disdain the wavering love of him, who balanced between the possession of a crown, and of her, whose excellence and affection transcended the worth of a kingdom.
We found her in her flower-adorned alcove; she was reading the newspaper report of the debate in parliament, that apparently doomed her to hopelessness.
That heart-sinking feeling was painted in her sunk eyes and spiritless attitude; a cloud was on her beauty, and frequent sighs were tokens of her distress.
This sight had an instantaneous effect on Raymond; his eyes beamed with tenderness, and remorse clothed his manners with earnestness and truth.
He sat beside her; and, taking the paper from her hand, said, "Not a word more shall my sweet Perdita read of this contention of madmen and fools.
I must not permit you to be acquainted with the extent of my delusion, lest you despise me; although, believe me, a wish to appear before you, not vanquished, but as a conqueror, inspired me during my wordy war.
But a bitter thought swiftly shadowed her joy; she bent her eyes on the ground, endeavouring to master the passion of tears that threatened to overwhelm her.
Raymond continued, "I will not act a part with you, dear girl, or appear other than what I am, weak and unworthy, more continue reading to excite your disdain than your love.
Yet you do love me; I feel and know that you do, and thence I draw my most cherished hopes.
If pride guided you, or even reason, you might well reject me.
Do so; if your high heart, incapable of my infirmity of purpose, refuses to bend to the lowness of mine.
Turn from me, if you will,--if you can.
If your whole soul does not urge you to forgive me--if your entire heart does not open wide its door to admit me to its very centre, forsake me, never speak to me again.
I, though sinning against you almost beyond remission, I also am proud; there must be no reserve in your pardon--no drawback to the gift of your affection.
My presence embarrassed her; so that she dared not turn to meet her lover's eye, or trust her voice to assure him of her affection; while a blush mantled her cheek, and her disconsolate air was exchanged for one expressive of deep-felt joy.
Raymond encircled her waist with his arm, and continued, "I do not deny that I have balanced between you and the highest hope that mortal men can entertain; but I do so no longer.
Take me--mould me to your will, possess my heart and soul to all eternity.
If you refuse to contribute to my happiness, I quit England to-night, and will never set foot in it again.
It was pleasant to see the haughty Raymond and reserved Perdita changed through happy love into prattling, playful children, both losing their characteristic dignity in the fulness of mutual contentment.
A night or two ago Lord Raymond, with a brow of care, and a heart oppressed with thought, bent all his energies to silence or persuade the legislators of England that a sceptre was not too weighty for his hand, while visions of dominion, war, and triumph floated before him; now, frolicsome as a lively boy sporting under his mother's approving eye, the hopes of his ambition were complete, when he pressed the small fair hand of Perdita to his lips; while she, radiant with delight, looked on the still pool, not truly admiring herself, but drinking in with rapture the reflection there made of the form of herself and her lover, shewn for the first time in dear conjunction.
I rambled away from them.
If the rapture of assured sympathy was theirs, I enjoyed that of restored hope.
I looked on the regal towers of Windsor.
High is the wall and strong the barrier that separate me from my Star of Beauty.
She will not be his.
A few more years dwell in thy native garden, sweet flower, till I by toil and time acquire a right to gather thee.
Despair not, nor bid me despair!
What must I do now?
First I must seek Adrian, and restore him to her.
Patience, gentleness, and untired affection, shall recall him, if it be true, as Raymond says, that he is mad; energy and courage shall rescue him, if he be unjustly imprisoned.
After the lovers again joined me, we supped together in the alcove.
Truly it was a fairy's supper; for though the air was perfumed by the scent of fruits and wine, we none of us either ate or drank--even the beauty of the night was unobserved; their extasy could not be increased by outward objects, and I was wrapt in reverie.
At about midnight Raymond and I took leave of my sister, to return to town.
He was all gaiety; scraps of songs fell from his lips; every thought of his mind--every object about us, gleamed under the sunshine of his mirth.
He accused me of melancholy, of ill-humour and envy.
You promised to facilitate my visit to Adrian; I conjure you to perform your promise.
I cannot linger here; I long to soothe --perhaps to cure the malady of my first and best friend.
I shall immediately depart for Dunkeld.
You dream that you can restore him?
Daedalus never wound so inextricable an error round Minotaur, as madness has woven about his imprisoned reason.
Nor you, nor any other Theseus, can thread the labyrinth, to which perhaps some unkind Ariadne has the clue.
Better to decay in absolute delirium, than to be the victim of the methodical unreason of ill-bestowed love.
The long duration of his malady has probably erased from his mind all vestige just click for source her; and it were well that it should never again be imprinted.
You will find him more info Dunkeld; gentle and tractable he wanders up the hills, and through the wood, or sits listening beside the waterfall.
You may see him--his hair stuck with wild flowers --his eyes full of untraceable meaning--his voice broken--his person wasted to a shadow.
He plucks flowers and weeds, and weaves chaplets of them, or sails yellow leaves and bits of bark on the stream, rejoicing in their safety, or weeping at their wreck.
The very memory half unmans me.
I only doubted whether or not I should endeavour to see Idris again, before I departed.
This doubt was decided on the following day.
Early in the morning Raymond came to me; intelligence had arrived that Adrian was dangerously ill, and it appeared impossible that his failing strength should surmount the disorder.
Farewell, Raymond; be happy in having chosen the better part in life.
This turn of fortune revives me.
I feared madness, not sickness--I have a presentiment that Adrian will not die; perhaps this illness is a crisis, and he may recover.
The balloon rose about half a mile from the earth, and here a favourable wind it hurried through the air, its feathered vans cleaving the unopposing atmosphere.
Notwithstanding the melancholy object of my journey, my spirits were exhilarated by reviving hope, by the swift motion of the airy pinnace, and the balmy visitation of the sunny air.
The pilot hardly moved the plumed steerage, and the slender mechanism of the wings, wide unfurled, gave forth a murmuring noise, soothing to the sense.
Plain and hill, stream and corn-field, red ghost tuileries gambling den discernible below, while we unimpeded sped on swift and secure, as a wild swan in his spring-tide flight.
The machine obeyed the slightest motion of the helm; and, the wind blowing steadily, there was no let or obstacle to our course.
Such was the power of man over the elements; a power long sought, and lately won; yet foretold in by-gone time by the prince of poets, whose verses I quoted much to the astonishment of my pilot, when I told him how many hundred years accept. gambling in america 1976 reserve they had been written:-- Oh!
I alighted at Perth; and, though much fatigued by a constant exposure to the air for many hours, I would not rest, but merely altering my mode of conveyance, I went by land instead of air, to Dunkeld.
The sun was rising as I entered the opening of the hills.
After the revolution of ages Birnam hill was again covered with a young forest, while more aged pines, planted at the very commencement of the nineteenth century by the then Duke of Athol, gave solemnity and beauty to the scene.
The rising sun first tinged the pine tops; and my mind, rendered through my mountain education deeply susceptible of the graces of nature, and now on the eve of again beholding my beloved and perhaps dying friend, was strangely influenced by the sight of those distant beams: surely they were ominous, and as such I regarded them, good omens for Adrian, on whose life my happiness depended.
Yet it was less painful to see him thus, than to find him fulfilling the animal functions uninterruptedly, his mind sick the while.
I established myself at his bedside; I never quitted it day or night.
Bitter task was it, to behold his spirit waver between death and life: to see this web page warm cheek, and know that the very fire which burned too fiercely there, was consuming the vital fuel; to hear his moaning voice, which might never again articulate words of love and wisdom; to witness the ineffectual motions of his limbs, soon to be wrapt in their mortal shroud.
Such for three days and nights appeared the consummation which fate had decreed for my labours, and I became haggard and spectre-like, through anxiety and watching.
At length his eyes unclosed faintly, yet with a look of returning life; he became pale and weak; but the rigidity of his features was softened by approaching convalescence.
What a brimful cup of joyful agony it was, when his face first gleamed with the glance of recognition--when he pressed my hand, now more fevered than his own, and when he pronounced my name!
No trace of his past insanity remained, to here my joy with sorrow.
This same evening his mother and sister arrived.
The Countess of Windsor was by nature full of energetic feeling; but she had very seldom in her life permitted the concentrated emotions of her heart to shew themselves on her features.
The studied immovability of her countenance; her slow, equable manner, and soft but unmelodious voice, were a mask, hiding her fiery passions, and the impatience of her disposition.
She did not in the least resemble either of her children; her black and sparkling eye, lit up by pride, was totally unlike the blue lustre, and frank, benignant expression of either Adrian or Idris.
There was something grand and majestic in her motions, but nothing persuasive, nothing amiable.
Tall, thin, and strait, her face still handsome, her raven hair hardly tinged with grey, her forehead arched and beautiful, had not the eye-brows been somewhat scattered--it was impossible not to be struck by her, almost to fear her.
Idris appeared to be the only being who could resist her mother, notwithstanding the extreme mildness of her character.
But there was a fearlessness and frankness about her, which said that she would not encroach on another's liberty, but held her own sacred and unassailable.
The Countess cast no look of kindness on my worn-out frame, though afterwards she thanked me coldly for my attentions.
Not so Idris; her first glance was for her brother; she took his hand, she kissed his eye-lids, and hung over him with looks of compassion and love.
Her eyes glistened with tears when she thanked me, and the grace of her expressions was enhanced, not diminished, by the fervour, which caused her almost to falter as she spoke.
Her mother, all eyes and ears, soon interrupted us; and I saw, that she wished to dismiss me quietly, as one whose services, now that his relatives had arrived, were of here use to her son.
I was harassed and ill, resolved not to give up my post, yet doubting in what way I should assert it; when Adrian called me, and clasping my hand, bade me not leave him.
His mother, apparently inattentive, at once understood what was meant, and seeing the hold we had upon her, yielded the point to us.
The days that followed were full of pain to me; so that I sometimes regretted that I had not yielded at once to the haughty lady, who watched all my motions, and turned my beloved task of nursing my friend to a work of pain and irritation.
Never did any woman appear so entirely made of mind, as the Countess of Windsor.
Her passions had subdued her appetites, even her natural wants; she slept little, and hardly ate at all; her body was evidently considered by her as a mere machine, whose health was necessary for the accomplishment of her schemes, but whose senses formed no part of her enjoyment.
There is something fearful in one who can thus conquer the animal part of our nature, if the victory be not the effect of consummate virtue; nor was it without a mixture of this feeling, that I beheld the figure of the Countess awake when others slept, fasting when I, abstemious naturally, and rendered so by the fever that preyed on me, was forced to recruit myself with food.
She resolved to prevent or diminish my opportunities of acquiring influence over her children, and circumvented my plans by a hard, quiet, stubborn resolution, that seemed not to belong to flesh and blood.
War was at last tacitly acknowledged between us.
We had many pitched battles, during which no word was spoken, hardly a look was interchanged, but in which each resolved not to submit to the other.
The Countess had the advantage of position; so I was vanquished, though I would not yield.
I became sick at heart.
My countenance was painted with the hues of ill health and vexation.
Adrian and Idris saw this; they attributed it to my long watching and anxiety; they urged me to rest, and take care of myself, while I most truly assured them, that my best medicine was their good wishes; those, and the assured convalescence of my friend, now daily more apparent.
The faint rose again blushed on his cheek; his brow and lips lost the ashy paleness of threatened dissolution; such was the dear reward of my unremitting attention--and bounteous heaven added overflowing recompence, when it gave me also the thanks and smiles of Idris.
After the lapse of a few weeks, we left Dunkeld.
Idris and her mother returned immediately to Windsor, while Adrian and I followed by slow journies and frequent stoppages, occasioned by his continued weakness.
As we traversed the various counties of fertile England, all wore an exhilarating appearance to my companion, who had been so long secluded by disease from the enjoyments of weather and scenery.
We passed through busy towns and cultivated plains.
The husbandmen were getting in their plenteous harvests, and the women and children, occupied by light rustic toils, formed groupes of happy, healthful persons, the very sight of whom carried cheerfulness to the heart.
One evening, quitting our inn, we strolled down a shady lane, then up a grassy slope, till we came to an eminence, that commanded an extensive view of hill and dale, meandering rivers, dark woods, and shining villages.
The gambling pigeon forge tn real estate was setting; and the clouds, straying, like new-shorn sheep, through the vast fields of sky, received the golden colour of his parting beams; the distant uplands shone out, and the busy hum of evening came, harmonized by distance, on our ear.
Adrian, who felt all the fresh spirit infused by returning health, clasped his hands in delight, and exclaimed with transport: "O happy earth, and happy inhabitants of earth!
A stately palace has God built for you, O man!
Behold the verdant carpet spread at our feet, and the azure canopy above; the fields of earth which generate and nurture all things, and the track of heaven, which contains and clasps all things.
Now, at this evening hour, at the period of repose and refection, methinks all hearts breathe one hymn of love and thanksgiving, and we, like priests of old on the mountain-tops, give a voice to their sentiment.
If mere existence, and not happiness, had been the final end of our being, what need of the profuse luxuries which we enjoy?
Why should our dwelling place be so lovely, and why should the instincts of nature minister pleasurable sensations?
The very sustaining of our animal machine is made delightful; and our sustenance, the fruits of the field, is painted with transcendant hues, endued with grateful odours, and palatable to our taste.
Why should this be, if HE were not good?
We need houses to protect us from the seasons, and behold the materials with which we are provided; the growth of trees with their adornment of leaves; while rocks of stone piled above the plains variegate the prospect with their pleasant irregularity.
Look into the mind of man, where wisdom reigns enthroned; where imagination, the painter, sits, with his pencil dipt in hues lovelier than those of sunset, adorning familiar life with glowing tints.
What a noble boon, worthy the giver, is the imagination!
And is not love a gift of the divinity?
Love, and her child, Hope, which can bestow wealth on poverty, strength on the weak, and happiness on the sorrowing.
I have consorted long with grief, entered the gloomy labyrinth of madness, and emerged, but half alive.
Yet I thank God that I have lived!
I thank God, that I have beheld his throne, the heavens, and earth, his footstool.
I am glad that I have seen the changes of his day; to behold the sun, fountain of light, and the gentle pilgrim moon; to have seen the fire bearing flowers of the sky, and the flowery stars of earth; to have witnessed the sowing and the harvest.
I am glad that I have loved, and have experienced sympathetic joy and sorrow with my fellow-creatures.
I am glad now to feel the current of thought flow through my mind, as the blood through the articulations of my frame; mere existence is pleasure; and I thank God that I live!
Ye who are linked by the affectionate ties of nature, companions, friends, lovers!
Sleeping thus under the beneficent eye of heaven, can evil visit thee, O Earth, or grief cradle to their graves thy luckless children?
Whisper it not, let the demons hear and rejoice!
The choice is with us; let us will it, and our habitation becomes a paradise.
For the will of man is omnipotent, blunting the arrows of death, soothing the bed of disease, and wiping away the tears of agony.
And what is each human being worth, if he do not put forth his strength to aid his fellow-creatures?
My soul is a fading spark, my nature frail as a spent wave; but I dedicate all of intellect and strength that remains to me, to that one work, and take upon me the task, as far as I am able, of bestowing blessings on my fellow-men!
The spirit of life seemed to linger in his form, as a dying flame on an altar flickers on the embers of an accepted sacrifice.
WHEN we arrived at Windsor, I found that Raymond and Perdita had departed for the continent.
I took possession of my sister's cottage, and blessed myself that I lived within sports losses worst gambling of Windsor Castle.
It was a curious fact, that at this period, when by the marriage of Perdita I was allied to one of the richest individuals in England, and was bound by the most intimate friendship to its chiefest noble, I experienced the greatest excess of poverty that I had ever known.
My knowledge of the worldly principles of Lord Raymond, would have ever prevented me from applying to him, however deep my distress might have been.
It was in vain that I repeated to myself with regard to Adrian, that his purse was open to me; that one in soul, as click at this page were, our fortunes ought also to be common.
I could never, while with him, think of his bounty as a remedy to my poverty; and I even put aside hastily his offers of supplies, assuring him of a falsehood, that I needed them not.
How could I say to this generous being, "Maintain me in idleness.
You who have dedicated your powers of mind and fortune to the benefit of your species, shall you so misdirect your exertions, as to support in uselessness the strong, healthy, and capable?
I hovered for ever around the walls of its Castle, beneath its enshadowing thickets; my sole companions were my books and my are gambling island quickly thoughts.
I studied the wisdom of the ancients, and gazed on the happy walls that sheltered the beloved of my soul.
My mind was nevertheless idle.
I pored over the poetry of old times; I studied the metaphysics of Plato and Berkeley.
I read the histories of Greece and Rome, and of England's former periods, and I watched the movements of the lady of my heart.
At night I could see her shadow on the walls of her apartment; by day I viewed her in her flower-garden, or riding in the park with her usual companions.
Methought the charm would be broken if I were seen, but I heard the music of her voice and was happy.
I gave to each heroine of whom I read, her beauty and matchless excellences--such was Antigone, when she guided the blind Oedipus to the grove of the Eumenides, and discharged the funeral rites of Polynices; such was Miranda in the unvisited cave of Prospero; such Haidee, on the sands of the Ionian island.
I was mad with excess of passionate devotion; but pride, tameless as fire, invested my nature, and prevented me from betraying myself by word or look.
In the mean do i gambling now, while I thus pampered myself with rich mental repasts, a peasant would have disdained my scanty fare, which I sometimes robbed from the squirrels of the forest.
I was, I own, often tempted to recur to the lawless feats of my boy-hood, and knock down the almost tame pheasants that perched upon the trees, and bent their bright eyes on me.
But they were the property of Adrian, the nurslings of Idris; and so, although my imagination rendered sensual by privation, made me think that they would better become the spit in my kitchen, than the green leaves of the forest, Nathelesse, I checked my haughty will, and did not eat; but supped upon sentiment, and dreamt vainly of "such morsels sweet," as I might not waking attain.
But, at this period, the whole scheme of my existence was about to change.
The orphan and neglected son of Verney, was on the eve of being linked to the mechanism of society by a golden chain, and to enter into all the duties and affections of life.
Miracles were to be wrought in my favour, the machine of social life pushed with vast effort backward.
One day as Adrian and Idris were riding through the forest, with their mother and accustomed companions, Idris, drawing her brother aside from the rest of the cavalcade, suddenly asked him, "What had become of his friend, Lionel Verney?
Tell me, however, in what way he passes his time; what he is doing and thinking in his cottage retreat?
He will feel highly honoured, and thus you may repay a part of the obligation I owe him, and compensate for the injuries fortune has done him.
But let us go; to-morrow we will arrange to ride out together, and proceeding towards that part of the forest, call upon him.
They found me Curius-like, feasting on sorry fruits for supper; but they brought gifts richer you gambling commission customer funds that the golden bribes of the Sabines, nor could I refuse the invaluable store of friendship and delight which they bestowed.
Surely the glorious twins of Latona were not more welcome, when, in the infancy of the world, they were brought forth to beautify and enlighten this "sterile promontory," than were this angelic pair to my lowly dwelling and grateful heart.
We sat like one family round my hearth.
Our talk was on subjects, unconnected with the emotions that evidently occupied each; but more info each divined the other's thought, and as our voices spoke of indifferent matters, our eyes, in mute language, told a thousand things no tongue could have uttered.
They left me in an hour's time.
They left me happy--how unspeakably happy.
It did not require the measured sounds of human language to syllable the story of my extasy.
Idris had visited me; Idris I should again and again see--my imagination did not wander beyond the completeness of this knowledge.
I trod air; no doubt, no fear, no hope even, disturbed me; I clasped with my soul the fulness of contentment, satisfied, undesiring, beatified.
For many days Adrian and Idris continued to visit me thus.
In this dear intercourse, love, in the guise of enthusiastic friendship, infused more and more of his omnipotent spirit.
Yes, divinity of the world, I read your characters in her looks and gesture; I heard your melodious voice echoed by her--you prepared for us a soft and flowery path, all gentle thoughts adorned it--your name, O Love, was not spoken, but you stood the Genius of the Hour, veiled, and time, but no mortal hand, might raise the curtain.
Organs of articulate sound did not proclaim the union of our hearts; for untoward circumstance allowed no opportunity for the expression that hovered on our lips.
If I lift up my eyes and see the desart earth, and feel that those dear eyes have spent their mortal lustre, and that those beauteous lips are silent, their "crimson leaves" faded, for ever I am mute!
But you live, my Idris, even now you move before me!
There was a glade, O reader!
The oaks around were the home of a tribe of nightingales--there am I now; Idris, in youth's dear prime, is by my side --remember, I am just twenty-two, and seventeen summers have scarcely passed over the beloved of my heart.
The river swollen by autumnal rains, deluged the low lands, and Adrian in his favourite boat is employed in the dangerous pastime of plucking the topmost bough from a submerged oak.
Are you weary of life, O Adrian, that you thus play with danger?
The blue eyes of my angelic girl were fixed on this sweet emblem of herself: "How the light palpitates," she said, "which is that star's life.
Its vacillating effulgence seems to say that its state, even like ours upon earth, is wavering and inconstant; it fears, methinks, and it loves.
I have long been silent; long even to sickness have I desired to speak to you, and submit my soul, my life, my entire being to you.
Look not on the star, dear love, or do, and let that eternal spark plead for me; let it be my witness and my advocate, silent as it shines--love is to me as light to the star; even so long as that is uneclipsed by annihilation, so long shall I love you.